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The History of 

Che Sifie 

Official Newspaper of 

The American Expeditionary 

Forces in France 

From February 8, 1918 


June 13, 1919 

The Columbia Publishing Company 
Washington, D. C. 

Copyright, 1921 



AUG 15 |y2t 








It has been remarked that The A. E. F. was one of the most sentimental outfits 
in history. It might also be remarked that it was one of the most businesslike. 
Besides putting an end to the Kaiser's hopes of victory in a manner that could not be 
said to lack in decision and finality the A. E. F. has to its credit several other 
accomplishments which deserve honorable mention, notable among which was THE 
Stars and Stripes. 

Bom of the necessity of modem warfare THE STARS AND STRIPES, managed, 
written, published and distributed entirely by members of The A. E. F., came into 
existence unheralded and unadvertised, and when its work was done was quietly 
mustered out. However, the paper, with its inspirations, its optimistic character, 
and the role of companion to homesick hearts which it played in France will live 
forever in the tender memories of the men who won the war while they read it. 

The service it rendered the country in keeping at its high standard the morale 
of our forces in France cannot be overestimated. Its effectiveness as a real weapon 
of warfare was appreciated by all the Allies and realized fully by the enemy. The 
attempts of the Germans to discredit THE STARS AND STRIPES among American 
soldiers was an indication of its value. 

The press of this country commented on THE STARS AND STRIPES editorially 
on numerous occasions. The New York World called it "the most successful infant 
phenomenon in newspaper history." 

The Chicago Post said : * 'To establish a newspaper in a foreign land, carry it on 
for sixteen months in war time and then wind up the business with a profit of $700,000 
is — we submit — a world breaking record. There was no better, m.ore useful, more 
wisely directed enterprise of all the many things America did in France than THE 
Stars and Strifes." -_^^^==- 

The Pittsburg Chronicle-Telegram said: "The triumph of THE STARS AND 
Stripes was the way in which it upheld the enhsted man's viewpoint, and as the 
A. E. F. is getting home, there are few things of France that many men will miss more 
than their official newspaper." — 

Therein lies the success of THE STARS AND STRIPES. Its editors were fear- 
less, truthful, humorous, sympathetic, and in perfect accord with its readers, because 
they were of the same class, and felt, lived and moved, in the same atmosphere and 
under the same conditions. -rzi^rrir" 

To the men who helped produce the paper it became the one big thing in their 
lives at that time. All of their efforts were bent on making it the great success which 
it became and when it was finally folded away and passed into history as another great 
achievement of America they still remembered it with kindness. The readers of THE 
Stars and Stripes in France are still enthusiastic in their praise of the paper, 
and refer to it as the "grand old paper," "the dear old sheet," and in other terms which 
leave their unqualified endorsement and their undying appreciation of it in no doubt. 

This little book is presented by one of the men who helped in the work of making 
The Stars and Stripes a success ; who was vitally mterested in it, and whose 
interest is such that he feels that it should not be forgotten, folded and laid away 
with other mementoes of the great stmggle — and so blended with the general 
impressions of the past that future generations will not recognize it except 
as referred to by those historians who choose to go further into detail than their 
more concise contemporaries. It is presented to the reader for his consideration, 
and with the earnest hope that it will find a place among his treasures of wartime days. 


TO THE A. E. F. 

To The Stars and Stripes: 

Please convey to the officers and men of our Expeditionary Force my 
warmest greetings on tliis, the anniversary of the entrance of the United 
States into this great war for Liberty, and say to them tliat we all not only 
have greatly admired and been very proud of the way they have so far 
accounted for themselves but have the utmost confidence that in every 
test they will prove to be made of the finest mettle of free men. 

(Signed) Woodrow Wilson. 


The Stars and Stripes was the name by 
which the official news organ of The American 
Expeditionary Force in France was known. 
This paper, the purpose of which was to up- 
build the morale of the American soldier, 
fighting in a foreign land thousands of miles 
away from liome, and to give him something 
that made home seem nearer, was entirely free 
of any propaganda. Its editorial staff, made 
up of enlisted men of the Army, enjoyed a free 
hand in framing the policy of the paper and 
making it acceptable both to the enlisted men 
and to the officials administering the affairs of 
the United States in France. Its success was 
due to the spirit in which it was written and the 
enthusiastic support given it by the men for 
whose benefit it was published. 

The Stars and Stripes was published from 
February 8, 1918 to June 13, 1919, appearing 
every week on Friday. It was written, man- 
aged, and distributed entirely by enlisted men, 
and officers were in charge only of the finances 
and in command of the men on detached ser- 
vice with the paper. 

The paper was in eight pages of seven col- 
umns each. At its head appeared a distinctive 
cut over a coat of arms and two American flags 
with crossed masts. Its make-up was perfect 
from a newspaper viewpoint, as all the men 
engaged in its publication were experienced 
newspapermen. It ran a regular sporting 
page; an editorial page of unusual interest; 
a column devoted to poetry born in the 
A. E. F. ; articles, humorous, learned, and 
current by soldiers; cartoons drawn by its 
readers, and by a regular staff of artists; 
published serially the histories of all combat 
divisions of the American Army; reproduced 
anything of special soldier interest which 
appeared in American newspapers, and in 

general made its columns valuable and inter- 
esting to the class of readers it served. What 
more can be said of any newspaper? 

A history of The Stars and Stripes would 
be dry and uninteresting if only statistics were 
presented. In the history which follows it 
has been the effort of the writer to present a 
true historical account of the paper from the 
time of its inception to the date of its last issue. 
If anything has been omitted it has been for 
the reason that in such a short story of the 
greatest journalistic achievement of modern 
times it has been impossible to find the space 
for it. 

The first office of the paper in Paris was in a 
small hall bedroom in the Hotel Sainte-Anne, 
at 10 Rue Ste-Anne. The staff at that time 
was composed of five men, Capt. Viskniskki, 
Lieut. Gushing, Lieut. Michael, Pvt. Hawley, 
and Pvt. Wallgren. While the members of 
the editorial staff wrote their stories in the 
bedroom office, the treasurer counted the few 
francs that were coming in from the sale of the 
first issues in the cafe downstairs, while Wall- 
gren drew the cartoons on a beer table nearby. 
Issue Number Six of The Stars and 
Stripes found the staff more comfortably 
located in offices at 1 Rue des Italiens. The 
paper had two floors of the building, with 
office space sufficient for all the work necessary 
at that time. Issue Number Forty-four 
appeared from the office which was the final 
home of The Stars and Stripes in France, 
at 32 Rue Taitbout, over the offices of the 
American Chamber of Commerce. These 
quarters were the most commodious ever 
occupied, and were made necessary by the 
rapid growth of the paper. All of the space 
was on one floor which made liaison between 
the different departments easy. 

r. .S. Official 


In this initial number of The Stars and Stripes published by the men of the Overseas 
Command, The Commander-in-Chief of the American E.\j)editionar,v Forces extends his greet- 
ings through the editing staff to the readers from the first line trenches to the base ports. 

These readers are mainly the men who have been honored by being the first contingent of 
Americans to fight on European soil for the honor of their country. It is an honor and 
privilege which makes them fortunate above the millions of their fellow citizens at home. 
Commensurate with their privilege in being here, is the duty which is laid before them, and 
this duty will be performed by them as by Americans of the past, eager, determinate, and 
unyielding to the last. 

The paper, written by the men in the service, should speak the thoughts of the new 
American Army and American people from whom the Army has been drawn. It is your paper. 
Good luck to it. 

(Signed) John J. Pershing, Covimander-in-Chi(f, A. E. F. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 

The Origin of The Stars and Stripes 

TUST who originated the idea of pubHshing 
the official newspaper of the A. E. F. is a 
mooted question, for versions differ to this 
day, even among the members of the editorial 
staff, who ought to know. The General Staff 
never declared itself on this important ques- 
tion, nor has any official statement ever been 
issued on this point, which incidentally ought 
to be settled in the interest of historical 

In the anniversary number, printed under 
stress, credit for originating the paper was 
given to Major Guy T. Viskniskki, its first 
editor, who back in the United States was con- 
nected with the Wheeler Syndicate of New 
York. "It is certainly true that the Stars 
AND Stripes — its purpose, its policy and its 
very name — was proposed and put through by 
Guy T. Viskniskki," the paper stated, who was 
described as second lieutenant, detached from 
the 80th Division and serving as censor at 
American Field Press Headquarters, Neuf- 

Another version, and one inclined to by 
certain members of the staff, was that the 
paper was the creation of the General Staff at 
Chaumont and that Viskniskki knew nothing 
of the plan until he was ordered to France for 
special duty overseas and reported at 

Certain it is that way back in the dark days 
of November, 1917, when less than one hun- 
dred thousand troops were in the throes of an 
everlasting training, the need of an Army paper 
was recognized by the Headquarters Staff, and 
it is understood that General James J. Har- 
bord, first Chief of Staff, and General Denis 
E. Nolan, Chief of Intelligence, actively 
sponsored the plan. The paper must neces- 
sarily be an agency for morale, the word went 
out, and the expense was not to be considered 
for a moment. 

The actual planning of the paper developed 
upon Colonel Walter E. Sweeney, Chief of 
G-^-D, who in turn entrusted the details of 
organization to Major Frederick Palmer, the 
well-known war correspondent in charge of the 
press section at Neuf chateau, and Major 
Mark S. Watson, then second lieutenant and 
Headquarters Chief of the Press Section in 

Palmer knew of Viskniskki's success in pub- 
ishing the Bayonet, one of the first Army 
newspapers in the United States, and he Avas 
ultimately selected to be first editor of the new 
paper, which incidentally was decided to be 
known as The Stars and Stripes. 

Viskniskki's task of organizing the news- 
paper personnel called for resource and energy, 
qualities he possessed in a remarkable degree. 
He knew of Hudson Hawley, formerly with 
the Neio York Sun, and a private in the 101st 
Machine Gun Battalion, and he learned of 
Wallgren's ability as a cartoonist. 

Orders assigning them to the paper were 
quickly put through, and Viskniskki requisi- 
tioned the services of Charles P. Gushing, a 
second lieutenant of the Marines as his first 
assistant. These three, with Lieutenant Wil- 
liam K. Michael as advertising manager, con- 
stituted the staff of the paper for the first week. 

Additionally the Press Section at Chaumont 
contributed features for the first issue. In 
fact, it was a case of all available hands to 
the copy desk, and no one knows but the little 
band of writers who participated in the first 
week "free for all" just what the result would 
be, but the paper was published on time, and 
it was a pronounced success from the start. 

The working capital of The Stars and 
Stripes, at the time of its inauguration was 
25,000 francs, which was borrowed from The 
General Staff. It was understood from the 
beginning that the paper was to be made self- 
supporting. To help towards this end the 
price of the paper was fixed at 50 centimes, 
about ten cents in value at that time. From 
the first issue an intensive campaign for 
advertising was put on, and after the first 
few months the advertising averaged at least 
40 per cent. The success of the paper as an 
advertising medium was instantaneous. 

The way the soldiers dug down into their 
pockets for their 50 centimes for each issue 
would have been gratifying to the heart of 
many a circulation manager in the states. 
Long before the anniversary issue of The 
Stars and Stripes appeared the loan from 
the General Staff had been repaid with in- 
terest, and a substantial balance was shown 
on the credit side of the paper's bank account. 

The income was not limited alone to ad- 
vertising and circulation receipts. At differ- 
ent times the paper published three volumes; 
"Yanks," a collection of the poetry published 
in The Stars and Stripes; "Wally, His 
Cartoons of the A. E. F., and "Henry's 
Pal to Henry," a series of humorous letters 
written by Sergeant Seth T. Bailey. 

These three books enjoyed a tremendous 
sale, and their popularity in the A. E. F. 
was not equalled by any other book or books 
sold in France. "Yanks" appeared in 
November, 1918, "Henry's Pal to Henry" 
early in the spring of 1919, and "Wally 's 
Cartoons," several weeks later. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 

The Editorial Room at 32 Rue Taitbout 

The Editorial Department 

The editorial staff of the paper, at the very 
beginning was composed of only two writers 
and an artist. The writers were Major 
Visniskki, the originator of the paper, and 
Hudson Hawley, a private from the 101st 
Machine Gun Battalion, and before that of 
the New York Sim. Hawley wrote nearly 
all of the first few issues at Neufchateau. 
His stories ran from editorials to such supreme 
foohshness as "Bran Mash" and "Miss 
Information." The artist was Abian A. 
Wallgren, of the 5th Marines. 

Sharing honors with these men in the pro- 
duction of the first issue of The Stars and 
Stripes were four soldier printers dispatched 
to Paris from the Twenty-ninth Division a 
week before the first issue appeared. They 
were Sergeant Richard S. Claiborne, the oldest 
man on the staff of the paper who saw service 
dating from the Cuban campaign. Private 
Sigurd U. Bergh, Private Herman J. Miller, 
and Private Frank J. Hammer. These four 
men remained until the paper suspended 

x\t different times during the first year of 
the paper's life additional help was acquired 
in the editorial department. All of the men 
who came to work on The Stars and Stripes 
were men with years of experience behind 
them and some of them not only became 
famous throughout the A. E. F. for their 
contributions to The Stars and Stripes 
but achieved national prominence. 

Private Harold W. Ross who came to the 
paper from the 18th Engineers had, before 
the war worked for The San Francisco Call, 

and as one of the stories in The Stars and 
Stripes put it, "on 78 other papers, at 
different times." Private Ross became the 
managing editor of The Stars and Stripes 
shortly after becoming attached to the paper 
and was with the paper until a short while 
before it suspended publication. He con- 
ceived the idea of a fund for French War 
Orphans, which was one of the most com- 
mendable of the paper's activities. 

Sergeant Seth T. Bailey of The Sunset 
Division was responsible for the letters of 
"Henry's Pal to Henry," which were pub- 
lished in book form by The Stars and 
Stripes, and which were undoubtedly the 
most humorous of the many attempts at 
such a type of wit. 

Sergeant Alexander Woollcott, who before 
the war was dramatic critic for The Neio 
York Tinu's, was picked up in Base Hospital 
No. 8, and did wonderful work as the writer 
of stories from the American front. 

Tyler H. Bliss, became famous for his 
weekly articles in "The Dizzy Sector." 

Other men who did notable work as mem- 
bers of the Editorial Council were John T. 
Winterich, of the 9()th Aero Squadron and 
The Springfield Republican; Philip Von Blon, 
of Base Hospital No. 4 and The Cleveland 
Plain Dealer; Jack S. Connolly, of the 101st 
Field Artillery and The Boston Herald; 
Robert Snajdr, of the 308th Ammunition 
Train and Tlie Cleveland Plain Dealer, and 
John Black, of Base Hospital 15 and The 
Brooklyn Eagle. 

Despite the fact that there were always 
commissioned officers in charge of the paper, 
these enlisted men at all times had the direc- 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


tion of the paper's policy and wrote most 
of the editorials and stories. There were 
correspondents scattered all over the A. E. F. 
and some of the editorial staff stationed at 
Paris frequently took long trips from that 
city for the purpose of keeping in touch with 
the men who were fighting and to learn their 
likes and desires. The editors were quick to 
recognize anything which met the approval 
of the American soldiers and to sense those 
things of which they disapproved. There is 
no question that The Stars and Stripes 
in many instances had a great bearing on the 
men who read it. 

At one time, after the Armistice, when the 
men absent without leave were causing great 
concern in the A. E. F. an order was issued 
which made the penalty for being A. W. O. L. 
very heavy. The officer responsible for the 
order was not greatly in favor of the i:)ublica- 
tion of a news story concerning the order 
but finally consented to a write up. The 
article appeared in the next issue of The 
Stars and Stripes under the caption, 
"More Grease On The Skids for A. W. O. 
L's." In a few days more than 80 per cent 
of the men absent without leave from their 
organizations had reported for duty. 

At another time, an officer in charge of a 
certain office in Paris needed help from soldiers 
with special qualifications. To call the 
attention of the men who might be available 
to the fact that he needed them he brought a 
story of a colunm length to the office of The 
Stars and Stripes and insisted that it be 
published intact on the first page. He was 
very angry when he found that his story had 
been pruned down to two short paragraphs 

and printed on an inside page. However, 
several days after the appearance of the paper 
a telephone call came from his office requesting 
that The Stars and Stripes publish no 
more stories stating that help was required 
there because they had already been flooded 
with replies from the short story which had 

These instances are recalled only for the 
purpose of showing that the paper was read 
thoroughly and that the men missed nothing 
that the editorial staff thought worth while 
printing. It may also be an indication of 
the fact that the editors knew what to write 
and how to write it so the men who read it 
could understand. 

First Managing Editor 

The first managing editor of The Stars 
and Stripes was Private John T. Winterich 
of the 96th Aero Squadron and the Springfield 
Republican, a splendid all-around newspaper 
man discovered by Major Watson at Chau- 
mont. Winterich's modesty is characteristic, 
but his associates on the paper realized the 
tremendous work he performed, and gave 
him credit for a major part in the paper's 
phenomenal success. 

If any man predominated on the editorial 
staff it was Tracy, who wrote heads and fea- 
ture stories with equal facility and on whose 
shoulders rested the responsibility of the final 
make-up and of subordinating the "Ever 
Ready" Mr. Faithful, the Daily Mail foreman 
of printing. 

Incidentally it should be recorded that 
Winterich "carried on" in the capacity of 
utility man throughout the anxious days of 

Editorial Council— Left to right, T. H. "Tip" Bliss, Philip Von Blon, J. W. Rixey Smith, Robert 

I. Snajdr, Hudson Hawley. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

the memorable 1918 summer and did not 
relinquish his position until long after the 
Armistice, when he resigned in favor of his 
buddy "Ross." Even then he continued to 
exercise his influence until the finish in the 
capacity of associate editor. 

The Editorials 

As has been stated before the editorial policy 
of The Stars and Stripes was almost entirely 
in the hands of several enlisted men. They 
not only dictated the editorial policy of the 
paper, but they wrote the editorials in such a 
style that they N\' ere interesting to the men and 
grippingly, convincingly, understandable. 
They condemned what they thought was 
wrong and commended what they believed to 
be right in unmistakable terms. The editor- 
ials were written in a snappy style, which 
came to be considered characteristic of The 
Stars and Stripes. In the first issue, an 
editorial announcing the beginning of The 
Stars and Stripes ran as follows: 

"With this issue The Stars and Stripes 
reports for active service with the A. E. F. It 
is your paper, and has but one axe to grind — 
the axe which our Uncle Samuel is whetting on 
the grindstone for use upon the august necks 
of the Hapsburgs and the Hohenzollerns." 

"The Stars and Stripes is unique in that 
every soldier purchaser, every soldier sub- 
scriber, is a stockholder and a member of the 
board of directors. It isn't being run for any 
individual's profit, and it serves no class but 
the fighting men in France who wear the olive 
drab and the forest green. Its profits go to 
the company funds of the soldier subscribers, 
and the staff of the paper isn't paid a sou. 

"If you don't find in this, your own weekly, 
the things in which you are particularly inter- 
ested, write to the editors, and if it is humanly 
possible they will dig up the stuff you want. 
There are so many of you over here now, and 
so many different sorts of you. that it is more 
than likely that some of your hobbies have 
been overlooked in this our first number. Let 
us know. 

"We want to hear from that artist in your 
outfit, that ex-newspaper reporter, that short- 
story writer, that company 'funny man,' and 
that fellow who writes the verses. We want to 
hear from all of you — for The Stars and 
Stripes is your paper, first, last and all the 
time; for you and for those of your friends and 
relatives to whom you will care to send it. 

"The Stars and Stripes is up at the top o' 
the mast for the duration of the war. It will 
try to reach every one of you, every week — 
mud, shell-holes and fog notwithstanding. 
It will yield rights of the roadway only to 
troops and ambulances, food, annnunition and 
guns, and the paymaster's car. It has a big 
job ahead to prove worthy of its namesake, 
but, with the help of all of you, it will, in good 

old down east parlance, 'do its gol-derndest' 
to deliver the goods. So — For-ward! 

The diplomacy of the editorial staff is 
very evident in the following editorial which 
deals with the profanity of the A. E. F. 
Without offending the spirits of the soldiers 
the editor wrote very convincingly of the 
wrong way of cussing and defended, without 
injuring the feeling of the most ardent advo- 
cate of clean speech, the "cuss" words which 
were generally employed to bolster up the 
language of the doughboy. 

"It is violating no confidence to state that 
some soldiers cuss. It is equally true that 
some cuss more than others. But it is not 
to be forgotten that some soldiers don't 
cuss at all. 

"Soldiers are just like other folks, a thing 
some people find extremely hard to under- 
stand. Cussing isn't by any means a vice 
peculiar to the military profession. 

"It isn't our purpose to condone cussing, 
or to advocate its free and unlimited coin- 
age in the A. E. F. We merely wish to 
point out that it is a habit which some peo- 
ple bring into the Army with them, just as 
they bring other habits, such as brushing 
their teeth and parting their hair on the 
side. Being a careless habit, born some- 
times of years of careless speech and a 
mistaken sense of emphasis, it doesn't at 
all imply blasphemous thoughts or irrever- 
ance towards the Deity on the part of the 

"A soldier who cusses may not be what 
the ladies call a 'nice' man, but it doesn't 
follow that he's an irreverent, godless 
wretch. He has seen too much of the 
works and wonders of God, too much of 
the divine in the actions of God's children 
about him to be blasphemous at heart. So, 
when some of the brethren, both here and 
at home, are inclined to be captious, we 
ask them to hold up a bit and reflect." 

By Baldridge. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


Hotel Ste. Anne, well known to many members of the A. E. F., who visited Paris. It was 
here the offices of "The Stars and Stripes" were established when they were first moved 

from Neufchateau. 

Henry's Fal to Henry 

Seth Bailey made many otherwise dull 
moments for the doughboys bright by his 
ridiculous letters supposedly written by the 
pal of a mythical Henry, who had enlisted 
in the Army early in the game and who in- 
sisted on keeping Henry informed of his 
personal adventures in a manner that brought 
mirth whenever read. 

One of Bailey's letters is reproduced below 
in order that the quality of his writings may 

be shown. They were all funny, and it is 
not to be understood that great trouble has 
been taken in reprinting this one to find the 
funniest that was written: 

"Franse, July 13th, 1918. 
"Dear Henry. Well Henry you ain't got 
nothing on 'me much. I'm at the front ossie. 
Of course I ain't quite as near as you are 
maybe but I'm so close it ain't very healthy 
to go out promonodding in no quiet country 
lane with a madamoiselle on your arm like 
I used to do down in the S. O. S. 


The History of the Stars and 

»CMON '1-0^(5 hGj1£ 
YOU ^lANKETt' Ot-^-H*^^ 

\jbf<(= EAa£C> SON Of A 

<SE FCTi DEV&lOPin^ TT-^ PULUiMfes MaSCua<S 

"Well they was a lot of mules coming up 
here from down in the S. O. S. town where I 
wrote to you from and it seems that they 
needed some mule skinners right quick to 
take them up. One morning the C. O. 
come over to our company and wants to 
know if there's any mule skinners in the 
doughboys that wants to go the front. 

"Now Henry what I don't know about mules 
would fill a fair sized ensiklopedia. I never 
even hooked one up before, but it's almost 
like hooking up a tame horse and I woidd of 
done anything Hemy to get to the front. So 
I stepped out of line and pulled my hat over 
on one side and kind of spit sideways to give 
the old bird a good impression of the real 
thing he wanted most right then. 

"Well Henry I got to come alright. We 
left the S. O. S. about ten days ago and we 
just pulled in. All we had to do on the way 
up was to carry watter for them pesky rabbits. 
I can just bet you Henry that a mule can 
drink twice as much water as a elephant any 
old day. 

"But the worst part of it now that I'm up 
here is that I'm still a noncombatant and 
am still a doughboy too. I enlisted to fight 
Henry and about the first time I get a chance 
I'm going right up in the front line thrensh 
with the doughboys and take a crack at a 

"Good luck old Pal. 

S. T. B." 

"Dizz/ Sector" 

Among the humorists of the A. E. F. Tip 
Bliss ranks high. His writings ranged from 
advice to the lovelorn to the notes of an ex- 
pert on the correct manner of military dress. 
Written in tji^ical American, his stories took 
hold, and kept hold. Just a short time ago, a 

By Wally. 

veteran of the big scrap, writing about some 
real or fancied wrong done him by a negligent 
Government clerk, wrote, "as Tip Bliss would 
say, 'what and the hell .^' " Bliss was a carefree 
doughboy in the truest sense of the word, and 
since his return to civilian life has continued to 
write his stories for the edification of his 
former soldier readers. He has a penchant for 
trailing a disreputable looking dog after him 
on his strolls, and the soldiers who have seen 
him with the dog think it is funny — they think 
so because thej' can't think of Bliss with any 
other thought. 

Divisional Histories 

After the armistice The Stars and Stripes 
ran complete histories of all the divisions 
which had taken part in the fighting in France. 
Many and fierce were the arguments engaged 
in concerning the effectiveness of different 
divisions when members of them got together, 
and sometimes there threatened to be warfare 
equalling in bloodshed the struggles in the 
Argonne when two or more doughty warriors 
wearing dift'erent insignia on their left 
shoulders got together in the friendly shelter 
of a cafe to discuss the part they had played in 
winning the war. The Stars and Stripes, 
always foremost in promoting peace and con- 
genial relations between the different units 
of the A. E. F. recognized the need of publish- 
ing the truth concerning every division, so 
that he who could read might see and be con- 

The divisional histories were written by 
Captain Joseph Mills Hanson, official historian 
of The Stars and Stripes at G. H. Q. These 
histories were not the first contributions of 
Captain Hanson to The Stars and Stripes 
as he had written poetry for the paper very 
frequently before the histories were published. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 



By Baldridge. 

The Art Department 

Perhaps no other one man became so 
generally known to the soldiers of the A. E. F. 
as did Abian A. Wallgren, the cartoonist, 
whose strip appeared in each issue of the paper 
from the first to the last issues. Wallgren was 
serving with the Fifth Marines around Dam- 
blaine, where they were just getting ready for 
their first sojourn in the trenches when The 
Stars and Stripes was inaugurated. His 
fiist strip was drawn there and sent to Neuf- 
chateau. His cartoons have been styled "un- 
doubtedly the funniest drawings of army life 

ever conceived." He was not only one of the 
soldiers but his sense of humor and his powers 
of observation were so keen that he readily 
grasped the tlohigs which the men considered 
humorous. He constantly made trips to the 
front during his service with the paper to 
study conditions and to get material for his 
cartoons. He made life miserable for the 
members of the staff who were conspicuous 
for some physical characteristic which made 
them good models. Hudson Hawley, whose 
dome was devoid of any hirsute adornment 
was one 'of his favorite models, while George 
W. B. Britt, Army Field Clerk, styled Alpha- 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 


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The History of the Stars and Stripes 


bet Britt, because of the numbers of letters in 
his initials, offered good material with his 300 
or more pounds of avoirdupois. Wallgren 
was known familiarly to all the soldiers of the 
A. E. F. as Wally and the nickname persists 
to this day. His popularity was proven by 
the great demand for his cartoons when they 
were pu))lished in book form by The Stars 
AND Stuipes. 

One of the great American dailies said, "If 
The Stars and Stripes accomplished nothing 
more it served to bring to the front a truly 
great American artist in the person of C. Le- 
Roy Baldridge." Baldridge was fighting the 
Germans before America entered the war, but 
as soon as he learned that the United States 
had taken a hand he lost no time in getting 
into the American Army. He became the 
official artist for The Stars and Stripes soon 
after its appearance and by the quality of his 
work soon earned for himself a place among 
the great artists of the day. One of his car- 
toons, entitled "The First To Go Home," 
which is reproduced here, was intended as a 
silent rebuke to the men who were clamoring 
to get home after the armistice. It gained 
special mention at home, as did several others, 
which were reproduced by newspapers and 
magazines all over the world. It may be said 
that Baldridge caught the spirit of the Ameri- 
can fighter in a fuller sense than did any other 
man who attemj^ted to do so. and that he 
drew stories, morals, and doctrines into his 

cartoons which not even the most indifferent 
could fail to see. 

Soldier Verse 

The poetry which appeared in The Stars 
AND Stripes came from everywhere and from 
everybody in the A. E. F. Under the stress of 
war the literature of a country receives an 
impetus. The professional writers are in- 
spired by heroic deeds and are fired with 
patriotic zeal to the point where they excel 
themselves in their work. However, the most 
sentimental, the most graphic, and that which 
most truly expresses the feelings of the men 
engaged is that which they themselves write. 
And it was the policy of The Stars and 
Stripes to print the poetry that was received 
if it had a semblance of worth. It mattered 
not about the meter or the feet, if the words 
meant something. A great many times the 
poetry printe<l by The Stars and Stripes was 
not highly creditable but it was without ex- 
ception expressive. Not that all of the work 
was done by amateurs — some of it was con- 
tributed bj' members of the A. E. F. who had 
gained considerable j^restige as writers of 
verse at home and some of it was contributed 
anonymously by persons who evidently had 
had a great deal of experience. In the first 
issue of The Stars and Stripes was repro- 
duced a poem which was found tacked on the 
door of a billet by some imknown member of 
a regiment which had just departed for the 

Wally, well-known Scandinavian cartoonist and enemy of prohibition. 

Abian A. Wallgren. 

Real name — 


The Jlistory of the Stars and Stripes 


h ^^ 

r./-C* /./^, Bci^'^-^y^ /rr^. 

front. The poem, which is reproduced here, 
more tridy expresses the spirit of the men who 
enHsted from a sense of duty than all the lyrics 
penned at home throughout the war. It has 
all through it that strain of happy-go-lucky 
spirit which made the Yanks such wonderful 
scrappers and which compelled the admiration 
of our allies. The poem is as follows: 

By the rifle on my back. 

By my old and well-worn pack, 

By the bayonets we sharpened in the billets 

down below. 
When we're holding to a sector, 
Bv the howling jumping Hector. 
Colonel, we'll be Gott-Strafed if the Blank- 

teenth lets it go. 

And the Bodies big and small, 

Runty ones and Bodies tall, 

Won't keep your boys a squatting in the 

ditches very long: 
For we'll soon be busting through, sir — 
God help Fritzie when we do. sir — 
Let's get going. Colonel Blank, because we're 

feeling might\' strong. 

Tliis poem and the other })oems reproduced 
in these pages are reprinted liere because they 
give some idea of what the doughboys were 
thinking of as they lay in the trenches, in 
their billets, or were on leave for a while, 
away from the commotion of war. They 
may be said to express the heart of the A. 
E. F. sentimentally, morally, and religiously, 
as well as frivolously and humorouslv. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


As We Know Them 


He's got the longest pair of legs that ever came to France, 
And when he takes us on a hike, it's sure a merry dance; 
He's got the longest mem'ry, too; 'cause when we ask for leave 
He always has a Something on our records up his sleeve. 

He likes to get up early and check up on reveille. 
And if the turnout isn't prompt, there's nothing he can't say; 
He blisters all the late ones, right before the whole command — 
And say! That man can handle scorching language simply grand! 

It's "Squads right!" after breakfast, with no let-up until noon; 
The next thing, he'll be working us beneath the blasted moon. 
It's "Squads left!" after mid-day chow — -police, fatigue and such 
Till everyone is eager for a stretcher or a crutch. 

But up in front? The Skipper's There! He keeps us peppered up 
By jollying and ragging us: bouquets what's made by Krupp 
May fly around his dome all night and bust his snooze all day — 
He goes his rounds, and quizzes guards, all cheerful-like and gay. 

It's hell-for-leather all the time if you would follow him. 

He's always three good jumps ahead, with punch and pep and vim; 

But if I ever re-enlist, I think that I will try 

To get into his outfit, for he's one real human guy ! 

Hudson Hawley. 


Who was it, picked from civU life 
And plunged in deadly, frenzied strife 
Against a Devil's dreadful might.'' 

Just plain "John Doe — Buck Private." 

Who jumped the counter for the trench, 
And left fair shores for all the stench 
And mud, and death, and bloody drench? 
Your simple, plain "Buck Private." 

Who, when his nerves were on the hop. 
With courage scaled the bloody top? 
Who was it made the Hun swine stop? 
"J. Doe (no stripes) Buck Private." 

Who, underneath his training tan 
Is, every single inch, a man! 
And, best of all, American? 

"John Doe, just plain Buck Private." 

Who saw his job and did it well? 
Who smiles so bland — yet fights like Hell? 
Who rang again the Freedom bell? 
'Twas only "Doe — Buck Private." 

Who was it lunged and struck and tore 
His bayonet deep into Hun gore? 
Who was it helped to win the wiir? 

"John Doe (no brains) Buck Private." 

Who, heeding not the laurel pile 
That scheming other men beguile. 
Stands modestly aside the while? 

"John Doe (God's kind) Buck Private." 
Allan R. Thomson, 
Sgt., Hq., Detch., 81st Div. 


Alone upon a hill I stand 

O'erlooking trench and No Man's Land; 

In night's black skies, like Northern Lights, 

Pale flashes rise to mark the heights 

Where Death's dark angels bear away 

The souls of men who die today. 

Jesus of Nazareth, from Thy cross 
Look down and comfort those who toss 
And scream in pain and anguish dread 
In No Man's Land among the dead; 
Have pity for the wounds they bear, 
Jesus of Nazareth, hear my prayer. 

On Calvary, as the hours dragged, 
From cruel nails Thy body sagged. 
Yet in that agony, Lord, 
Thou didst give blessed comfort t'ward 
One suffering soul who with Thee died: 
He who for sin was crucified. 

Out there lie men who die for right — 
O Christ, be merciful tonight; 
Wilt Thou who stilled the troubled seas 
Stretch forth Thy hand their pain to ease, 
Thy sons whose feet so bravely trod 
Earth's battlefields, O Son of God? 

Brainerd Taylor, Major, U.S.A. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

The French War Orphan Fund 

The announcement that The Stars and 
Stripes would work in conjunction with the 
American Red Cross in taking care of the 
French children made fatherless by the world 
war appeared in the eightli issue of The Stars 
AND Stripes. 

The procedure followed in adopting a French 
War Orphan is best described in the following 
article clipped from The Stars and Stripes. 

How to Adopt a War Orphan 

A company, detachment, or group of the 
A. E. F. agrees to adopt a child for a year, con- 
tributing 500 francs for its support. 

The children will be either orphans, the 
children of French soldiers so seriously crippled 
that they cannot work, or homeless waifs from 
the invaded districts. The adopting unit may 
select its cliild from an.y of these classes and 
specify its age and sex. 

The money will be sent to The Stars and 
Stripes to be turned over to a special cominit- 

Marie-Louise Patriarchs, the first French war 
orphan adopted through "The Stars and Stripes" 

tee of the American Red Cross for disburse- 

At least two hiuidred and fifty francs will be 
paid upon adoption and the remainder within 
four months thereafter. 

All of the money contributed will go to the 
children. The expenses of administration will 
be borne by the Red Cross. 

A i)hotograph and a history of each child will 
be sent to its adopting unit, which will be ad- 
vised of the child's whereabouts and hereafter 
notified monthly of its progress. 

The Red Cross committee will determine the 
disposal of the child. It will either be sent to ' 
a practical agricultural or trade school or 
supported in a French familj'. 

The Red Cross committee will regularly 
visit the schools and homes of the children and 
supervise the expenditures of the money upon 

No restrictions are placed upon the methods 
by which the money may be raised. It may 
be gathered by an equal assessment upon the 
members of a unit, by passing the hat, by giv- 
ing an entertainment — in any way the unit 
sees fit. 

The funds may be handled through the CO. 
the top sergeant's office, or by any one in a 
unit designated for the purpose. 

Address all communications regarding these 
children to War Orphans' Department, The 
Stars and Stripes, G2, A. E. F., 1 Rue des 
Italiens, Paris, France. 

The Stars and Stripes by this plan made 
possible the care, feeding, and education of 
thousands of French children whose fathers 
had gone to the war and who had not returned, 
or who had returned in such a condition that 
they could not support their families. 

Companies, regiments, detachments, per- 
manent units, every organization that could, 
became the proud "parrain" of a fatherless 
French child. The Stars and Stripes 
adopted one of these children, by name Marie 
Louise Patriarch, who lost both her natural 
parents by direct cause of the war. Little 
Marie was between six and seven years of age 
when the journalistic doughboys took her 
under their wings, and when they left France 
they left enough money to take care of her 
until she would be of an age to take care of 
herself. Since their return to America the 
members of the original staff of The Stars 
AND Stripes have sent enough money to 
France to see little Marie safely through 
school, and as other organizations took as 
nuich interest in their adopted orphans it may 
be safely supposed that many otherwise 
friendless children have been well taken care 
of tlirough the generosity of the American 
Expeditionary Forces. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


No. 1, Rue des Italiens 

'The Stars and Stipes" had offices on the fifth and sixth floors of this 
building from April to December, 1Q18. 

Soldiers' Service 

The Soldiers' Service Department of The 
Stars AND Stripes was developed to a high 
degree of efficiency. The men who had charge 
of. it were also newspaper men of experience, 
and although they had a phase of newspaper 
work to deal with different from any which 
they had ever had before, they rose grandly to 
the occasion, and succeeded in making the 
columns of the paper so valuable through the 
work of their department alone that it was 

increased in value to its readers a hundred 
fold. It was the duties of the men in charge of 
this department to read all the multifarious 
communications which arrived from the men 
in the service asking for advice, information, 
help, or for, anything else that they couldn't 
get anywhere else. A story published in The 
Stars and Stripes said that the Service De- 
partment answered questions ranging in im- 
portance from the age of President Wilson to 
whether or not Mary Pickford had died during 
the epidemic of influenza in the States. There 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

is no doubt that the Service Department con- 
ducted by The Stars and Stripes was able 
to render better service than the information 
departments conducted by the welfare organi- 
zations and others for the reason that the paper 
served as the medium of intelligence between 
those seeking information and those who could 
give it and no letters were required except in 
cases where the information sought was of a 
confidential nature. The extent to which this 
feature was used by the men is evidenced by 
the fact that during the life of the paper the 
ser\nce department answered more than 
500,000 inquiries by personal letters. 

The Service Department was in charge of 
George W. B. Britt, Army Field Clerk, who 
was assisted by Sergeant William F. Germain, 
of the 320th Machine Gun Battalion, and of 
The New York World. The detail work was 
done by a staff of about eight enlisted men, 
whose work was directed by Britt and 

Sport Page 

No newspaper is complete without its 
sport page, or section. So when The Stars 
AND Stripes was conceived, a sport page 
was planned. George W. B. Britt, Army 
Field Clerk, was selected to take care of the 
office of Sports Editor. So when the initial 
edition was delivered throughout the A. E. F. 
the readers were greeted with news from the 
athletic fields back home as well as with what 
was going on in the realm of sports from the 
S. O. S. to the advance deports and rest areas. 

In connection with this, it might well be 
said that the honor of having the first signed 
story — and the only one by the way— goes to 

Britt. It was his story on the Ejd Johnson 
vs. Judson C. Pewther fight "somewhere near 
G. H. Q." 

The sports page was well read and the 
readers were pleased with it, until the War 
Department back in the States issued the 
famous "W^ork or Fight" order. The cables 
then brought stories of famous athletes run- 
ing to the snipyards or farms to escape going 
to France. 

Grantland Rice, the renowned writer of 
sports, was assigned to duty with The Stars 
AND Striper during the first few months of its 
existence. "Grantland" was keen to be 
"up front" with the doughboys, but a relent- 
less Intelligence Section, anxious to strengthen 
the Army paper, ordered him to Paris, and the 
editor gave him as his first assignment the 
job of "killing" the sport page. The chagrin 
of the big sporting editor at this order can be 
imagined, but it was in the line of duty, and 
"bang" went the page. How Lieutenant 
Rice applied the quietus to the stay-at-home 
athletes is shown by the following excerpt: 

"The Stars and Stripes is printed for the 
A. E. F., not to help perpetuate the renown of 
able-bodied stars, who, with unusual qualifica- 
tions for war or useful work, elected to hear 
only the 'Business as Usual' slogan about 
their country's call for help in the greatest war 
she has ever known. 

"There is but one Big League today for this 
paper to cover — and that league winds its way 
among the S. O. S. stations scattered through- 
out France and ends at the western front. 
Any work that is part of the Big Job, either 
in the lines or back of it, from Chateau- 

'^"tptw^^'th^TS^^^^^^^ to ri,ht-William F. Germain, Arthur R. BurchiU, David 
X.. i-ftiuips, John M. Bucher, George W. B. Britt, A. V. Henrichsen, Logan M. Dayton. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


Thierrj' to San Francisco, is of utmost value. 
But 'entertaining the people back home' 
isn't part of the Big Job, nor do we believe the 
bulk of them want to be entertained in any 
such way. 

"When it finally came to a point where any 
number of able-bodied men were rushing into 
various occupations at the point of the boot, 
when the Secretary of War was forced to pro- 
duce a ruling that would make hundreds of 
these men 'work or fight' as the squabble 
and scurry grew day after day, this paper felt 
that it no longer had space left for such activ- 
ities — not with so many events of far greater 
interest taking place within sight and hearing 
of its working staff. 

"There is no space left for the Cobbs, the 
Ruths, the Johnsons, the Willards and the 
Fultons in the ease and safety of home when 
the Ryans, the Smiths, the Larsens, the Bern- 
steins and others are charging machine guns 
and plugging along through shrapnel or grind- 
ing out 12-hour details 200 miles in the rear. 

"Back home the sight of a high fly drifting 
into the late sun may still have its thrill for a 
few. But over here the all absorbing factors 
are shrapnel, high explosives, machine gun 
bullets, trench digging, stable cleaning, nurs- 
ing, training back of the lines and other end- 
less details throughout France from the base 
ports to beyond the Marne. 

"Sport among the troops must go on — for 
that is part of the job. Sport among the 
youngsters back home must go on — ^for that, 
too, is part of the training job. 

"But the glorified, the commercialized, the 
spectatorial sport of the past has been burnt 
out by gunfire. The sole slogan left is 'Beat 
Germany.' Anything that pertains to that 
slogan counts. The rest doesn't. And that 
is why this is the last sporting page The Stars 
AND Stripes will print until an Allied victory 
brings back peace." 

The A. E. F. readers agreed with the 
Editorial Council and were contented to let 
the news of slacker professionals go to the 
waste basket. 

After the Meuse-Argonne offensive and 
the end of the fighting, hundreds of letters 
were received daily from men scattered 
throughout the A. E. F. "When are we 
going to get our sport page back.'*" was the 
gist of all. Peace negotiations were going 
on. The editorial council remembered its 
promise of July 26, and plans for the re- 
sumption of the Sport Page were made. 
Sgt. Nat. C. Worley of the editorial staff 
was placed in charge. 

It was decided to cover A. E. F. athletics 
and sports in full and to touch but lightly 
on the athletic activities in the United States. 
So on December 27, 1918, the Sporting 

Page was resumed. The large athletic pro- 
gram mapped out for the entire A. E. F. 
by the General Staff was being put into 
action. There were Divisional Meets, in 
boxing, wrestling, track and field events, 
with the final culmination in the A. E. F. 
Championships in all events. 

For a while Worley tackled the job solo, 
but after a few weeks Sgt. Felix Holt was 
assigned to assist the sporting editor, and 
he covered most of the A. E. F. sports events, 
from Brest to the Rhine and from Monte 
Carlo to Belgium. Other members of the 
staff were assigned to special events such as 
tennis and golf matches. 

The Sporting Page was kept going through 
the rest of the winter and until the Stars 
AND Stripes was discontinued. 

The A. E. F. Amusement Page 

There were thousands of amusements 
staged by dramatists, actors of various degrees 
of ability, musicians, elocutionists, acrobats, 
singers, and vaudevillians for the benefit 
of the soldiers of the A. E. F., but if there 
had not been some way in which to let the 
men know when and where the different 
events were being staged there would not 
have been much of an attendance at the 
entertainments and the men would have 
missed a great deal that was coming to them. 

To help spread the good news The Stars 
AND Stripes ran a weekly A. E. F. Amuse- 
ment Section, which told its readers where 
the entertainments for their benefit were 
being staged. It was not necessary to run a 
dramatic or musical department to give the 
men reviews or press notices of the shows. 
All they wanted to know was where and when 
the big times were to come off and they'd 
be there, regardless of what the bunch who 
had seen the act before had said or thought 
about it. Besides, the great majority of the 
entertainers who appeared for the benefit of 
the soldiers in France were people whose 
reputations were already established, and 
whose fame in the States had preceded them 
to France. Perhaps the A. E. F. Amuse- 
ment Section meant a great deal to the men 
than a casual reader might believe. With 
only thirty-three bucks a month in the great 
majority of cases to cover all living expenses 
and provide recreation the men were always 
glad to have the opportunity of enjojnng the 
productions staged by the welfare and other 
organizations, and if the announcement came 
through The Stars and Stripes the only 
thing that could keep them away was the 
fact that they were on active duty or in the 
hospital, or the added possibility that the 
temporary playhouse was too far removed 
from their sector. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 


The Stars and Stripes Mother's Day 
Every newspaper, at some time in its career 
makes some effort to prove its influence uTon 
Its readers by sponsoring some idea, and en 
deavormg to get their opinions concerning k 
There were very few movements endorsed or 
plans maugurated by The Staks axd We" 

which were not accorde.l support by the soldier 
readers. An mstance of the good "influence o 
the paper and the manner in which the men 
responded to an appeal from its editorial sTaff 
7^ the Mother's Day Letter, which wa sug 
gested and carried out bv Th-: Stars aaTh 
SNIPES. Every man in The l E F tas 
urged on that day to write a letter to his 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


mother, not only because of the sentiment 
attached to the day and to the women whom it 
honored, but as a tribute to the part which the 
women of America played in carrying on the 
war successfully, and the bravery with which 
they surrendered their loved ones to the ser- 
vice of their country. 

The success of The Mother's Day Letter 
plan was the subject of a speech in The 
House of Representatives by Mr. Lohergan 
of Connecticut on the bill making appro- 
priations for the support of the Army for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919. Mr. 
Lonergan brought in The Stars and Stripes 
in this way, beginning with his tribute to the 
Army : 

"These men, leaving all at the call of duty, 
have carried with them not a little of the 
idealism that makes this Nation an honored 
one among the peoples of the world. Nothing 
could have typified it more than did the action 
of Pershing's troops in deciding to observe 
Mother's Day, Maj' 12, last, by writing home 
to their mothers. 

"The plan was suggested by the editors of 
The Stars and Stripes. . . . This plan 
was met with the immediate approval of Gen. 
Pershing. . . . 

"When this information was cabled here, I 
suggested to Postmaster General Albert S. 
Burleson that the mail of the soldiers posted 
Mother's Day be expedited in transit. He 
agreed and wired to the editors of The Stars 
AND Stripes, which is the official organ of our 
troops abroad, that mail posted on Mother's 
Day would, as far as possible, have the right of 

"Prompted by the whole-hearted way in 
which the American soldiers abroad responded, 
I suggested to the Secretary of War and to 
the Secretary of the Navy, as well as to the 
Commandant of the Marine Corps, that the 
troops at cantonments and in our insular pos- 
sessions, the men with the fleet abroad and 
at home, and the Marines, wherever stationed, 
be included." 

There follows the reply of the Adjutant- 
General to the Congressman's suggestion, stat- 
ing that the Secretary of War had been pleased 
to adopt it. 

Continuing, Mr. Lonergan says: 
"The fleet, I was informed, was notified by 
wireless along the same lines on May 11. 

"Thus, every man wearing the service uni- 
form of the United States on May 12 last, 
whether his duty was that of holding the front 
trench in France, or of sweeping with his eye 
the horizon of the North Sea for the telltale 
periscope . . . of guarding our border . . . 
of learning at our training camps the art of 
war, used at least a few minutes of his day 
in writing to the one friend whose heart is 
always with him, his mother. 

"The significance of this action can hardly 

be overestimated. . . . It was with no little 
pleasure, then, that I was informed by Mr. 
Otto Praeger, Second Assistant Postmaster- 
General, in charge of foreign mails, that on 
May 31, 1918, there arrived at an Atlantic 
port, a transport bringing 1,425,000 letters 
written by our troops and by the men of the 
fleet on Mother's Day, in addition to 205,000 
letters received earlier the same week. 

"This mail, I was further advised, began 
to arrive at the post office of the port where 
the ship landed, at 4.05 o'clock, and was 
worked out and dispatched to its destination 
on every available train during the night, and 
every letter was out of the office before 11 
o'clock of the morning of June 1; and orders 
had been issued by postmasters everywhere to 
give expeditious handling to this mail." 

Father's Xmas Letters 

It must be said, to the everlasting credit of 
The Stars and Stripes editorial staff, that 
although they paid a high tribute to the 
mothers of America's soldiers when they sug- 
gested a letter to every mother of every soldier 
in France, and every sailor on the high seas, 
they did not, in their turn, neglect the fathers 
of America, who had just as bravely as the 
mothers, given up their sons for their country. 

Every soldier in The A. E. F. was urged, 
through the columns of The Stars and 
Stripes to write his father a Christmas 
Victory letter on Christmas Day, 1918, telling 
Dad, Pop, Father, Papa, the Governor, or The 
Old Man, as the case might be, just how it was 
done, who did it, and what part he had played 
in it, and also to tell him that although he had 
been, since the dawn of history, overlooked in 
the lyrics of the poet, the sentimental back- 
ward glancing of man in his declining years, 
and to all outward appearances, the affection 
of his children, he was remembered by Amer- 
ica's crusaders fighting on foreign soil. He 
was to be told that although he had not wept 
on the shoulder of his son when he went away, 
and that although his few letters had been 
brief and to the point, that the soldier knew 
who had furnished the money which had been 
sent to him, and who had repeated with 
pride the letters which Mother had received. 
He was to be told that his son was writing to 
him as one man to another; that his stoicism 
at parting, his avoidance of sentimentaUty in 
his letters, and his substantial evidence of good 
faith and loyalty as expressed by the check 
book was deeply appreciated. 

So it came to pass that the hearts of many 
men were made glad by receiving from "The 
Boy," over there, a special letter marked 
"Father's Xmas Letter," in the corner where 
formerly was written, "Soldier's Mail," and 
which was given expedite handling by the 
Postal authorities so it would be sure to reach 
him on Christmas Day. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

The Mother's Day Letter and The Father's 
Christmas Letter uphold the statement that 
The Stars and Stripes was more nearly a 
pure American newspaper than any other 
sheet that had ever been published. It over- 
looked no one to whom credit was due, and 
no opportunity to do service to its supporters; 
it did not hesitate to endorse worthy cause nor 
to give its support to any worthy movement. 
The volume of letters sent from France for a 
few weeks prior to Christmas, 1918, was only a 
bit smaller than that sent home for Mother's 
Day, and if those letters could be gathered 
together and compiled what a wonderful story 
of the World War they might tell. 

The Ensign Started Something 

The Stars and Stripes published in its 
issue of October 25, 1918, a story from Ensign 
Fred Anderson, of the Salvation Army, sta- 
tioned in the Toul Sector during the big drive 
there, as follows: 


To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

I would like to find out through your paper, 
if we made a record in hot cake making. Dur- 
ing the big drive on the Toul sector, we started 
in at 7:30 a. m., and continued one steady fry 
until 3 o'clock the next morning, making hot 
cakes on a plate four by four feet, making 12 
large cakes at a time, three plates every five 
minutes, or something like 8,000 cakes in one 
stretch, without stopping. 

I have talked to several cooks and they all 
seem to think this is the record. If any one 
place has beaten us, kindly let us know. 

This is a Salvation Army flap-jack place, and 
the originator and operator is Ensign Fred 
Anderson of Tacoma, Wash. I shall be glad 
to hear from any cook on this just for the 
fun of it, and will be willing to run a race on 
frying for a canteen, when and wherever it 
can be arranged. 

Ensign Fred Anderson, 

Oct. 25, 1918. Salvation Army. 

Although Ensign Anderson wrote this letter 
in strict conformity to the truth and with the 
most sincere intention of engaging in a hot 
cake frying contest with any man in the A. E. 
F. who thought he could do better, the letter 
was received with some doubt as to the vera- 
city of its contents and the claims of the writer, 
and immediately there began pouring into the 
offices of The Stars and Stripes letters 
from other men who made themselves or their 
favorite mess sergeants claimants for the 
laurels of Mr. Anderson, although their letters 
lacked the one essential of truth which made 
Anderson's unbelievable. Many such letters 
were received but the one which follows 
won for the writer the award of the asbestos 
griddle which was offered by the lovers of liars 
in the American Expeditionary Forces. 

To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

I have read in the columns of your most 
excellent paper the famous exploits of En- 
sign Fred Anderson and J. Gorman Strasler 
in the art of quantity hot cake baking. 

My respects to these gentlemen whose fame 
no doubt is high in the flapjack world and 
probably, with but one exception, without a 
peer. That one exception is a certain mess 
sergeant in the Army of Occupation, doing 
duty a while back somewhere between the 
Argonne Forest and the Rhine. I am sorry 
that for obvious reasons his name cannot be 
mentioned, and it would be a breach of mili- 
tary prudence should I mention the place 
where this most modest mess sergeant did 
some real flapjack baking. 

A number of fighting divisions were en 
route to the Rhine when a general order 
comes flying through the columns of march- 
ing troops that a rest of one week would be 
granted, and a mess sergeant was wanted to 
erect and direct the consolidation of the 
many kitchens in the 2d Division and feed 
the hungry, tired, footsore soldiers. 

So, like a good patriot, the very modest 
mess sergeant of whom I write volunteered his 
services, and by tlie aid of a Spad was has- 
tened to the head of the column, and at a 
place selected beforehand set in at once. The 
Spad made such good time that the sergeant 
gained the rest camp two days ahead of the 
first division. His staff of cooks and helpers 
arrived by the same means soon after. He 
wired the headquarters of the medical supply 
department to forward a trainload of field 
hospital ward tents, which came a few hours 

Fourteen hundred of these large tents were 
put up end to end in a series of 14 rows, each 
row consisting of 100 tents, which made a 
mess hall under canvas 20 feet wide and 
0,000 feet long, something over a mile in 
length, the 14 rows making in all about 13 
miles of mess hall space. Twenty-six miles 
of tables were erected, and in front of the 
14 rows 1,750 field kitchens were lined up 
side by side so close thej' formed one long 
range about a mile and a half in length. 

Twenty miles of light railway was laid in 
front and back of this range and through the 
14 canvas mess halls, with a five-mile double- 
track spur running to the ration dump. 

While this was being done, which took 
about ten minutes, the Q. M. erected a huge 
sawmill nearby with a capacity of cutting 
1,700 cords of firewood every hour, which 
would be needed to keep the griddles hot. 
The Engineers erected a series of 150 steam 
trip-hammers to mash potatoes. A circular 
ditch was dug having a circumference of 
about half a mile, 20 feet wide and about 
four feet deep, and this was lined on the 
bottom and each side with steel, and a bat- 
tery of four tanks was employed to grind the 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


20 carloads of coffee dumped therein for each 

The stevedores in a pioneer regiment lined 
up a battery of 500 concrete mixers to stir 
the batter. The doughboys out of several 
outfits dug a trench 1,000 feet wide and a 
mile long in about 15 minutes to dump the 
eggshells in, which were carried away from 
the range by a series of 100 endless belts, 
each 2,000 yards long and traveling at the 
rate of 270 miles an hour. 

Every ten minutes a 30-car trainload of 
flour was unloaded into the mixers and a very 
large river a few miles away was literally 
taken out of its course and run through a 
giant flume in order to supply a sufficient 
quantity of water for the mixers and the 
3,750 G. I. cans of coffee required each meal. 

An airplane of the Handley-Page type, 
traveling at the rate of 360 miles an hour, 
would make regular half-minute trips over 
the whole length of the range, dragging a 
huge perforated drum containing, when full, 
about 50,000 gallons of grease. 

The batter was shot upon the griddles by 
a battery of 3,000 machine guns of a special 
type especially suited for this work, and they 
were operated by the 7,140 cooks and helpers 
employed in the kitchen. The cakes were 
turned by a device resembling a hay-turning 
machine, which was fastened on the rear of a 
Ford and made to travel up and down the 
range at full speed. 

As the cakes were finished they were loaded 
on flatcars and hauled by 16 light steam loco- 
motives into the 14 great mess tents, where 
a whole division on K. P. duty served them. 

Syrup was supplied from a large tank sus- 
pended 60 feet in the air in the center of the 
camp. Pipe Imes leading into each of the 
1,400 tents from this tank, which held when 
full about 150,000 gallons of pure maple 
syrup, gave every soldier ample sweetness for 
his stack of hots. 

Now you will agree with me that to direct 
such a huge enterprise as this it required 
brains, so the Signal Corps erected a tele- 
phone exchange requiring 500 operators, and 
by this system the entire feeding of a body 
of soldiers equal to the population of Pitts- 
burgh was intelligently directed by his most 
modest mess sergeant while suspended in a 
basket beneath an observation balloon some 
thousand yards above the earth. 

Everything was accomphshed in a few 
hours, and as many as 200,000 soldiers could 
be fed every eight minutes and each receive 
as many as 20 flapjacks, if wanted, which 
was often done of a morning during their 
week's rest. 

I have omitted manj^ facts about this great 
feeding camp, but will say no more for fear 

of embarrassing the sergeant in charge. 
Maybe he will accept an invitation to par- 
ticipate in a flapjack baking contest, but 
owing to his modesty I am afraid he may 
decline, so with that I will close this little 

Elmer K. Patterson, F. H., A. O. 

Letters from Readers 

In one of the stories written by the editorial 
staff of The Stars and Stripes it was said 
that when any newspaper began receiving 
letters signed "Constant Reader," that it 
was a sure sign that it was a newspaper. 
The Stars and Stripes, before it had been 
in existence for six months began receiving 
such letters, and not only could it be deter- 
mined that the writers were constant readers 
because they signed their names that way, 
but the contents of the letters betrayed the 
fact even better. Thousands of letters were 
received daily by the Service Department of 
the paper, from soldiers who needed help. 
The paper had not been in circulation long 
before letters of approval, written mostly 
by the men themselves, began coming in. 
The Stars and Stripes filled a need in their 
lives and they did not hesitate to express 
their appreciation and thanks to the editors. 
It will be noted that the signatures to the 
letters which are reproduced below, telling 
the editor what the men thought of the paper 
are in nearly every case preceded by the 
military abbreviation, "Pvt.," which means 
that the men for whom the paper was in- 
tended were reading the paper and that they 
liked it. 

The diplomatic skill of the editor may be 
recognized in his reply to Question No. 
4,176,502. The letter froiu Pomeroy Burton, 
the Paris Administrator of the British War 
Mission to the United States is only one of 
many such commendatory notes received 
by the paper. The few letters from the 
States which space allows to be reproduced 
here give some idea of the reception accorded 
The Stars and Stripes at home. 

For. TH£ CtNS'Of^ 

fHv iValiy 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

To The Stars and Stripes: 

I am glad to find in France a newspaper 
written and edited by and for our soldiers. 
Wisely managed, it can be a forum for their 
ideas, a means for each part of the American 
front to speak to all the others, a means for 
drawing closer together all the soldiers of the 
A. E. F. Good luck to The Stars and 
Stripes ! 

(Signed) Newton D. Baker. 
France, March 12. 


It has been said that the entire Stars and 
Stripes was written by American soldiers. 
That is true save for one page in the issue of 
January 17, 1919. On that occasion all pre- 
cedent of the Stars and Stripes was broken, 
for the complete page, excepting the advertising 
was written and made up by Poilus. 

The staff of the trench paper of the 74th 
French Division of Infantry, called Le Rire aux 
Eclats which means "Explosions of Laughter," 
or "Laughter amid the explosions," as you 
prefer, sent the news matter and the form for 
setting it up. The page was turned over to 
the French contemporaries of the A. E. F. and 
was dedicated "Aux Americains avec les 
compliments de tons les Poilus." 

That was the only deviation from the rule. 
At no other time did that amount of space 
ever go to any other but the American soldier. 
There were times when short stories which 
came from the pen of Australian, Canadian or 
English fighting men, were printed, but they 
were never more than a column in length. 

QUESTION NO. 4,176,502 
To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

I wish to take advantage of the knowledge 
of the staff of your paper by having them 
settle the question that is causing so many 
arguments in the A. E. F. and elsewhere. 

\Vhich division did the best fighting on the 

Kindly publish in your paper at your earl- 
iest opportunity the standing of the different 
combat divisions. In doing this you will 
please the men of the A. E. F. and the folks 
back home. 


[We have two men in the hospital now. 
Can't stand any more casualties at present. 


To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

My hearty congratulations on the excellent 
papers you are getting out. It is sure to be 
a big and permanent success if you continue 
to maintain the standards you have already 
established. Pomeroy Burton, 

Paris Administrator, 
British War Mission to the United States. 
February 20, 1918. 


To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

Some time ago, knowing that I couldn't 
carry it much longer, I gave my violin to an 
ambulance driver in the Chateau-Thierry dis- 
trict. I told him to take it to a hospital for 
whoever could use it. 

As I am now in the hospital myself, I would 
like to correspond with whoever has it, with 
the idea of getting it again. 

Mv old address is on the bottom of the case: 
Pvt. Harold A. Kirk, Co. L, — Inf. My 
present address is: 

PvT. Harold A. Kirk. 
Base Hospital 3, A. P. O. 705. 


To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes: 

To decide a bet I would like to have you 
answer the following in your next issue: Can 
a first lieutenant, who, we will say, is a 
commander of a company, take two days' 
pay out of a private's wages without either 
a summary or general court martial.^ A says 
no officer can touch a private's wages without 
a court martial. B says it can be done. We 
will suppose said private was AWOL for two 

Pvt. J. Mahon, A.A.A. 

[Pay cannot be taken out without the hold- 
ing of a summary court martial or by the 
soldier's consent, in which case, as a disci- 
plinary measure, his pay can be forfeited. — 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 



I have read with the greatest interest the 
first numbers of The Stars and Stripes which 
you have so very kindly sent me. 

It is an excellent thought to meet the needs 
of the troops in this way. 

I welcome the opportunity of sending greet- 
ings to the brave soldiers of America, who are 
now in line with their Allies in France, doing 
battle for the great cause of human justice and 

Their presence, side by side with the 
soldiers of France and Britain, is no fortuitous 
alliance, formed merely for the purposes of 

It is, in truth, the expression of an abiding 
instinct for the assertion of right against 
might, and for the deliverance of civilization 
from the servitude of autocratic militarism. 

This instinct may have been obscured or over-laid in the past, but the revelation of the 
sinister purpose of despotism has awakened it in all the progressive democracies of the world. 

I believe that the sacrifices which the soldiers of America are now making for the common 
cause are producing an unity of understanding and purpose with the allied peoples which 
will knit them permanently together to the immeasurable good of the world even after the 
victory for freedom has been obtained. 

It is this acceptance of common duties and common sacrifices in the face of a common 
danger which gave us the victory over those selfish and parochial aims which encouraged a 
military autocracy to attempt to seize universal power. 

(Signed) D. Lloyd George. 

7th March, 1918. 


To The Stars and Stripes: 

Last September, I said to several of your 
magnificent soldiers whose guest I was : " You 
are going to be called upon to make a great 
effort and to fulfill it, perhaps, at a cost of 
your life. We can feel only gratitude and 
friendship for you who have come from afar to 
help us." 

Today we have seen them at their task. 
Men w'ho have served with impassioned zeal 
the Democratic Ideal we want to save. 

They are worthy of their great forbears. 
Honor to their valor! 

(Signed) Georges Clemekceau. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

32 Rue Taitbout, last home of "The Stars and Stripes. 

The Funny Bone of the A. E. F. 

The Kansas City Journal, in a review of the 
first copy of The Stars and Stripes brought 
to the attention of the editor wrote: 

"There is a significant abundance of "funny 
stuff," Httle jests and jingles, jokes and quips, 
which might not sell to the American "funny" 
magazines, but which testify eloquently to the 
American soldier's lightheartedness, as well as 

to the necessity of laughing at a time when 
tears would be more natural. 

"To laugh as one stands on the brink of hell 
and gazes down into the pit of torture and 
suffering does not betoken indifference, but 
quite the reverse. The preservation of reason 
and of the sublime purpose which animates the 
men in khaki demand these laughs which mask 
the righteous curses that are directed toward 
the barbarous enemy." 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 



Corporal : Saj', Sarge. in what state would a 
man be if he fell into the river Seine? 
Sergeant: A wet state, I guess. 
Corporal: No, insane. 
(Corporal now a private). 



"These French streets," said Private Jones, 
"sure are a puzzle. You never know where 
you are on one of them and they change their 
name every block or so. I was walking along 
one named the Rue Marcher au paz the other 
day, and I looked up and found its name 
changed to Gardez voire droite, and two blocks 
farther I'll be hanged if it didn't change again 
to the Rue Defense d'Ajfficher." 


"He hasn't been paid in eight months. 
"Gee, the lucky stiff!" 

Should socks be worn inside the pants 
Or out? There seems some doubt. 

For though I find I wear mine in, 
I always wear them out. 


Corporal Bilkins had arrived in France after 
a few days in England. 

"How much money have you got left?" 
asked Corporal Wilkins. 

"Well, I've got four shillings, a quid, two 
farthings, nine pennies, a franc, half a pound, 
four sous and 50 centimes, but I've only got 
two dollars in cash." 


To the Editor of The Stars and Stripes : 

See if you can catch Capt. Cook kicking 
cute cooties 'cross khaki cricket coats. 

F. M. H. D., F. A. 


Syl (at the hospital) : That little nurse kinda 
likes me. 

Bill (next bed): Why so? 

Syl: She gave the others one calomel pill, 
and she gave me a couple. 


Slim — Speaking of that overseas cap, do 
you like it? 

Hank — Not any more than my face, but 
God gave me one, and the Government the 

"Say, feller, where's the field kitchen?" 
"Over in that wood yonder." 
"Well, whatnell is a field kitchen doin' in a 

By Wally. 

When You Unsling Your Pack at the End 
of A Twenty-Mile Hike 


Private: Say, Sarge, you know those shoes 
you gave me? 

Supply Sergeant: Well ,what about em? 

Private: Well, one of 'em matches all 
right, but the other doesn't. 


When the company was falling in in alpha- 
betical order, the old top became somewhat 
irritated at one private who seemed to be 
wandering around loose. 

"Hey, there, what's your name?" 


"Well, get the hell up there with the F's 
where you belong." 


"Say, a feller was around here lookin' for 

you just now." 

"Zasso? What'd he look hke?" 

"Lessee. Come to think of it, he had on 

spiral leggins and a pair of O.D. pants." 

Buck: Say, these here now kings of France 
weren't much on rank, was they? 
Corporal: How's that, buddie? 
Buck: Why, they was most of them Louis's. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

gj| t Hope -we ^ELteos f4^'>^, 
1^^^ DoHT NOTtce Tv^E^'^ < 

■■A.'.??s?«.w.'.M'nnimii i !/. i .^n';.3r !: ^i:/2j 


Oh, the General with his epaulets, leadin' a 

The Colonel and the Adjutant a-sportin' of 

their braid, 
The Major and the Skipper — none of 'em 

look so fine 
As a newly minted corp'ral, comin' down the 


Oh, the Bishop in his mitre, pacin' up the 

The Governor, frock-coated, with a votes-for- 

women smile. 
The Congressman, the Maj'or, aren't in it, I 

With a newly minted corp'ral, comin' down 

the line ! 


First Player: That guy that's doing all the 
winning doesn't know the game at all. Every 
time anyone says "I pass" he says "Lessee 

Second Player: Well, that's because he's 
an M. P. when he ain't working. 


Middle-aged male customer: Let me have 
three suits of underwear. 

Clerk: ijize, please? 

M.A.M.C. : Anything at all. I used to be in 
the Army. 


By Dr. C. C. Pill, M. C. 

N. Y. D.-^If you are unable to find a Army 
dentist with enough equipment to dispose of 
your dental difficulties, brush your teeth 
violently with iodine every morning for three 
days and then have them all pulled out. 

F. E. A.— It can hardly be claimed that your 
indigestion existed prior to enlistment, even if 
the eggs you ate did. Try painting the cook 
with iodine. 

S. O. L. — This query will have to be ans- 
wered by courier, as the censorship forbids all 
reference to troop movements. In the mean- 
time, paint yourself with iodine. 

R. T. O. — Unfortunately, the itch cannot 
justify us in recommending an S. C. D., as 
we have to have somebody left in the Army. 
However, you will probably be demobilized 
before you are cured anj^way, if that is any 
comfort to you. As for iodine — ay, there's 
the rub. 

S. T. B. — Paint it with iodine. 

M. P. — Your description of the top sergeant 
suggests forcibly that he is suffering from de- 
lusions — probably a case of manic depressive 
insanity, brought on by worry. Most of 
them are. Try spilling iodine on your service 

A. A. W., C. L. B., S. H. C. 

S. T. B. 

-See answer to 


This happened at Scratchville-by-the-Sea. 
Lots of things happen there, but this is really 
out of the ordinary. 

The major was making his inspection, weav- 
ing in and out among the "picked" men, when 
a wag called out: 

"Say, Doctor, don't 'ybji'thijik I oughter get 
a decoration.?" 

"I don't know," retorted tlfe dignitarj'/ 
laughing: "why?"." ' ' 

"Well, it seems to me it's Avorth it. I just 
captured a cootie with seven service stripes on 


In camp back home: Sir, I have the First 
Sergeant's permission to speak to the Captain. 

In billets over here: Sir, the Top told me I 
could speak to you about this here. 

In the trenches: Say, Captain — . 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


Business Office at 32 Rue Taitbout. 

The Financial Department 

The Stars and Stripes was required by 
General Headquarters of the A. E. F., to 
render a strict accounting of all money 
received, and to report minutely the expen- 
diture of all income. The burden of the 
work fell on the Finance Department, which 
was in charge of a commissioned officer. 
The first officer to assume the responsibility 
of Treasurer was Lieut. Adolph S. Ochs, Jr., 
of The Chattanooga Times. He had a most 
capable assistant in the person of Regimental 
Sergeant Major David R. Sterrett, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

The Financial Department received all 
money remitted by field agents for cash sale 
of the paper, and subscriptions, and pay- 
ments from agencies which handled the 
advertising for The Stars and Stripes. 
In order to keep a strict accountmg of all 
receipts it was necessary to have a complete 
system of books, and it required the services 
of several other soldiers as assistants to do this 
work properly. 

When The Stars and Stripes suspended 
publication more than $700,000 was on deposit 
to the credit of the paper in a Paris bank. 
This entire amount was turned over to The 
General Headquarters of the A. E. F. by 
Lieut. William C. Waltman, who had suc- 
ceeded Lieut. Ochs as Treasurer, and was 
finally transferred to The U. S. Treasury 
Department, where it still ren»ains. A bill 
has been introduced in Congress to give 
his money to the French War Orphans, but 
so far no final action has been taken, and 
the money earned by The Stars and Stripes 
has never been spent. 

The Advertising Department 

The Advertising Department of The Stars 
AND Stripes was organized before the appear- 
ance of the first issue, and although but little 
time was given the manager to collect a great 
amount of copy, a very creditable showing 
was made. The first advertising manager 
was Lieut. William K. Michael, who remained 
in that capacity until the summer of 1918, 
when he was succeeded by Lieut. R. Fendrick, 
who was assisted by Sergeant George E. 
Mulvany, Sergeant Harold Sigmund and 
Corporal Saul Goldberg. 

The advertising representative for Great 
Britain was the Dorland Agency, Ltd., 16 
Regent St., London, S.W. 1, and for the 
United States and Canada A. W. Erickson, 
381 Fourth Ave., New York City. The nat- 
ional advertisers in the United States found in 
The St.\rs and Stripes an excellent medium 
through which to introduce their products to a 
great body of men who were to return to 
America at the end of the war and who would 
represent the great majority of America's 
purchasing power for years to come. The 
advertising carried in The Stars and Stripes 
was of such an unimpeachable character that 
it needed no recommendation or guarantee 
from the staff. It may be said that the ad- 
vertisers who used the paper were not actuated 
wholly by a patriotic desire to help along such 
a good project as The Stars and Stripes but 
that they found the paper's huge circulation 
list of o!26,000, more than 70,000 of which was 
in this country an excellent means to promote 
the sale of their wares. 


The Hisiory of the Stars and Stripes 

Circulation Department 

It has already been stated that the French 
and British had attempted an official news- 
paper for their armies but that the attempts 
had failed mainly because of the difficulty 
encountered in delivering the papers to the 
soldiers, fighting on a long front and over 
ground torn by war. The Americans, how- 
ever, worked out a system b.y which they were 
able to deliver the papers to the men for whom 
it was intended on time and regularly. It 
took no little time to work out such a system 
and it took no little work to keep it in opera- 
tion after it was inaugurated. 

In the first place it was necessary to have 
men engaged in distributing the paper who 
knew their business. It was the policy of 
The Stars and Stripes from the beginning 
to accept no one for work with the paper if 
he had not had newspaper experience in the 
States. This made it possible for the paper 
to have men at Paris who knew their business 
and it was not a difficult task to select the 
best from the many applicants. Any man 
who did not make good at the work to which 
he was assigned was given another job and if 
he failed on that he was returned to his 

It was also necessary to have good men in 
the field to distribute the paper to the different 
divisions and units, some of which were 
engaged in actual fighting at the time. A 
large staff of field agents was organized who 
were assigned to divisions, regiments, units, 
areas or hospital centers. It was their duty 
to solicit customers among the outfit to 
which they were assigned and order the 

number of copies they could dispose of, collect 
payment for them, and forward the money, 
together with all papers which they could not 
sell to the Paris office. These agents had a 
total 91 cars of their own which they used in 
distributing the paper to their customers. 

The Stars and Stripes was aided in 
getting the paper to all the men in France by 
Hachette Cie., one of the largest newspaper 
distributing concerns in France. All of the 
bundles for the field agents were wrapped, 
with the help of men from The Stars and 
Stripes office, at the plant of this company, 
and shipped from there by railway express 
to the nearest railroad station to the agent 
for whom they were intended. The agent, 
knowing about when his papers were due, 
came down to the railroad station in his 
machine, waited for the train, and when it 
came loaded his papers and left for the unit 
to which he was to deliver the papers. This 
was often quite a distance from the railroad 
station and the roads were not always in the 
pink of condition. Then he went to work 
distributing the paper, and many times did 
it under fire. There were many thrilling 
tales to tell when these fellows got together, 
of shells bursting^ all about their flivvers, and 
tearing up the landscape within sight while 
they were peacefully doing the newsboy act. 
In some areas there were a number of agents 

Not too much can be said for the men who 
were responsible for getting the paper to its 
readers. That there were no casualties 
among them was more a matter of good luck 
than a shirking of duty under any conditions 

Addressograph and Mailing Departments. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


French officers, shortly after crossing the Rhine, reading "The Stars and Stripes." 

or circumstances. On the very day on which 
the Armistice was signed, Sgt. Joe Daly, 
Q. M. C, the head of the Transportation 
Department of The Stars and Stripes went 
a little too far with the papers he was taking 
to the men and was captured by the Germans. 
It can be said of all men responsible for the 
appearance and the distribution of The 
Stars and Stripes that they were actuated 
more by the love of their work than by the 
hope of reward or the fear of punishment. 
Theirs was the same spirit which inspired all 
of America's soldiers in the war, and the bit 
they did w^as as important as that of the most 
widely heralded hero at the front. 

Hachette and Cie. distributed the paper 
to out of the way places all over France, 
and put it on sale in places where only a few 
American troops were located, and where it 
was not practicable to place a field agent. 
The part which this company played in 
giving The Stars and Stripes the general 
distribution which it enjoj'ed was an important 
factor in its popularity. 

Captain Richard H. Waldo, formerly of 
The Neiv York Times came with The Stars 
AND Stripes in April, 1918. He was a news- 
paper man of long experience, and immediately 
set about devising plans for increasing circu- 
lation. He was the originator of the coupon 
system of cash sales which met with great 
success. By this system, a sheet of coupons, 
each of a value of 8 francs was sold to 
soldiers by the field agents. This system had 
several advantages. First, the cash received 
in advance for copies of the paper enabled 
the development of the work by bringing in 
the recnipts in a lump form. Second, when 

a soldier bought one of the coupon sheets he 
was sure of getting The Stars and Stripes 
for weeks, even if Lady Luck wasn't with 
him on payday night. Third, it lightened 
the burden of collecting by the field agents, 
and made the work in the financial depart- 
ment of the home office easier. When Captain 
Waldo left the paper in the fall of 1918 he 
was succeeded by Lieut. Milton J. Ayers, who 
carried the work he had started to a successful 
completion. Captain Waldo and Lieutenant 
Ayers were both assisted, during the time they 
headed the Circulation Department of The 
Stars and Stripes, by Regimental Sergeant 
Major Melvin Ryder, who had charge of all 
the field agents at the front; Regimental 
Sergeant Majors Richard S. Jones and 
Stuart Carroll who had charge of the agents 
in the S. O. S. and Base Ports. These men 
were responsible for all the papers shipped 
to the agents imder their supervision. 

The total nmnber of paid in advance yearly 
subscriptions carried by The Stars and 
Stripes was, at its highest figure, about 
70,000. Nearly all of these yearly subscrip- 
tions were to people in the United States 
and were sent by soldiers. The men them- 
selves rarely subscribed by the year, as they 
were never sure of being in any one place for 
a great length of time. However, field 
agents were authorized to accept yearly sub- 
scriptions and it was through them that most 
of the subscriptions sent home were made. 

The Addressograph Department 

A system for the purpose of addressing all 
subscriptions going to the States was necessary 
in order to eliminate all the extra work incident 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

to addressing the wrappers on typewriters as 
it was done in the beginning. The Addresso- 
graph system was the only available addressing 
system on the market in France and as soon as 
the installation of a modern method was 
approved, the Addressograph system was im- 
mediately put in. The highly satisfactory 
results obtained from the use of this system 
justified the claims of its supporters. 

The new system was put in charge of Ser- 
geant Nestor J. Born, who was later succeeded 
by Sergeant Thomas R. Healy, who stayed 
with the company until it was disbanded at 
Camp Mills. These two men, during the time 
they had charge of this system of The Stars 
AND Stripes addressed weekly more than 
70,000 single subscriptions to persons in the 
United States. 

Mailing Department 

It is easily understood that in order to get 
out the great number of papers that were sent 
from Paris each week by The Stars and 
Stripes it was necessary to have an efficient 
mailing department. This department, early 
in the spring of 1918 was put in charge of 
Sergeant Earl E. Riley, of the 9th Inf., who 
was an experienced mailer. Later Sgt. 
Riley was transferred to The Criminal 
Investigation Bureau, and Sergeant Harry 
L. Katz, of Boston, Mass., who had seen 
years of experience with weekly and daily 
publications in the United States, took charge 
of the work. The magnitude of the work will 
be more fully realized when it is known that 
each of the 70,000 subscriptions sent to the 
United States had to be wrapped singly, and 

that all the mailing of samples, books pub- 
lished by The Stars and Stripes, all orders 
for extra copies and back copies were taken care 
of in this department. A force of from 10 to 
15 enlisted men was kept busy in the mailing 
department all of the time. A plan for 
installing an up-to-date American system of 
mailing was submitted by Sgt. Katz soon 
after he became connected with this depart- 
ment, but because of the difficulty encountered 
in obtaining the necessary machinery and the 
paper used for that purpose, the plan was 
never put into working order. 

Tie Transportation Department 

All of the automobiles, ninety-one in 
number, which were used by the field agents 
in distributing the paper, by the correspond- 
ents who travelled from point to point in the 
A. E. F. and by members of the staff stationed 
at the office in Paris, were directly in charge 
of Sergeant Joseph G. Daly, who knew the 
number of every car assigned to The Stars 
and Stripes and was able to give the location 
of every car at any time. He was responsible 
for the proper care of the cars used and 
ordered all repairs necessary to keep them in 
good condition. 

His work was highly important for the 
reason that prompt delivery of the paper was 
necessary to make it valuable to the men, and 
it would have been impossible to get it out if 
the cars were not in prime condition. It was 
up to the field agents to keep their cars in 
good shape and if they did not they were 
pretty sure to hear from Sergeant Joe. 

'The Stars and Stripes" battery of linotype machines. 

The History of the Stars and Stripe.i 


In and Around the Office 

Henry E. Lammers, known familiarly as 
"Red," was the official mail orderly for The 
Stars and Stripes from early in the summer 
of 1918 until the paper suspended publication. 
Mail received by The Stars and Stripes 
and all mail dispatched through American 
and French post offices was handled by 
"Red." He was the connecting link between 
home and the members of The Stars and 
Stripes Staff in Paris. 

Corporal George P. Wrench, who was the 
official courier for The Stars and Stripes 
probably made more trips across the English 
Channel on tug boats and submarine chasers 
than any other man in the A. E. F. He 
made weekly trips from Paris to London, 
carrying the papers which were sent to 
American soldiers stationed in England. He 
also carried all official documents to and 
from Paris. 

The Stars and Stripes, published by 
Americans in a country where the English 
language was not spoken to any great extent, 
found it necessary to employ the services 
of an interpreter to make possible inteUigent 
communication with the French business 
men, and any French citizens who called at 
the office of the paper. Robert S. Dilly, a 
disabled French soldier, rendered valuable ser- 
vices, both as an interpreter and as a guide. 

Major Mark S. Watson, who succeeded Major 

Viskniskki as officer in charge. Major Watson 

was assisted by Capt. Stephen T. Early. 

Making up The Final Issue. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

Supply Department. 
From left— R. S. M. Nicholas Beser, Capt. Harry Parker, and Supply Sgt. J. Weinstein. 

Supply Department and the Canteen 

The Stars and Stripes Staff was sup- 
plied with all equipment necessary by a 
supply department which was in charge of 
men assigned to duty with the paper, and a 
canteen, carrying a full line of everything 
that was for sale by American commissaries 
in France was operated at the office, and the 
men were given the opportunity of buying 
cigarettes, cigars, candy, chocolate, jam, 
sugar, coffee, and other articles which they 
had considered necessities at home, but 
which, without the cooperation of the War 
Department would have been unobtainable 
luxuries in France. The last man who had 
charge of the canteen was Sergeant Jack 
Weinstein, who came with the paper early in 
1919 and supplied the soldier journalists all 
the way through to Camp Mills, Long Island, 
N. Y. ^ 

Censor and Press Company No. 1 

The Censor and Press Company No. 1, 
which was made up of the members of The 
Stars and Stripes Staff in Paris was a differ- 
ent organization from other military units in 
more ways than one. As practically all 
of the men drew commutation of quarters 
and rations it was necessary to have a strict 
accounting on all vouchers made out in pay- 
ment of this commutation. This work was 

handled by Regimental Sergeant Major Nich- 
olas Beser. He worked under the direction 
of Captain Harry L. Parker, the commanding 
officer of the company. Sergeant Beser was 
virtually Captain Parker's assistant. Lieu- 
tenant Donald R. Brenton was second in 
command of the company, and he was well 
liked by the men in the command. 

When the order suspending the publication 
came from G. H. Q., preparations were made 
at once to return the company to the States as 
a unit. On June 15, 1919, two days after the 
paper suspended publication, every man as- 
signed to the company had reported to Cap- 
tain Parker. 

On June 17, they were assembled at 
Clignancourt Barracks. After a night journey 
on the French Victory Flier they reached 
Brest, and on the first of July they saw the 
shores of La Belle France fade from sight from 
the decks of the U. S. Transport Pretoria. On 
the 13th of July the company landed at Ho- 
boken and went to Camp Mills. Camp Mills 
was the last place where the entire staff was 
assembled as a whole, the company being 
broken up into Casual Companies there, and 
sent to the camp nearest their homes for 

So passed an organization that had made 
history of an everlasting quality and who had 
materially aided its country in a time of need. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


The First Issue 

The first issue of The Stars and Stripes 
appeared on February 8, 1918. The paper 
stock was supphed by La Societe Anonyme des 
Papeteries Darblay and the mechanical work 
and printing was done at the plant of the Con- 
tinental edition of The Loudon Daily Mail, 
at 36 Rue de Sentier, Paris. The composition 
and makeup continued to be done at this 
plant until the j^aper was suspended, but in 
August 1918, the printing, which had by that 
time run up to 170,000 copies became too 
much for The Daily Mail and was from that 
time on done at the plant of Le Journal, a 
French daily newspaper, which owned one of 
the largest and best equipped printing plants 
in Europe. White newsprint paper, at all 
times a scarce article in France became so 
scarce after January, 1919, that it was neces- 
sary to bring paper from the United States to 
use for the printing of The Stars and Stripes. 
At different times consignments of Canadian 
paper were received from England. 

The composition was the work of American 
soldiers. The engraving was done by French 
workmen, and at different times both English 
and French pressmen ran the editions off. 

The first issue of The Stars and Stripes 
was supposed to have had a total circulation 
of 30,000. However, it was far short of this 

total, perhaps not more than 60 per cent of 
that number having been printed. The same 
men who wrote the stories addressed the 
copies and bundles for mailing, and carried 
them to the post office. The perfect mailing 
system of The Stars and Stripes was not 
in existence at that time. The total number 
of American soldiers to be supplied was only 
about 300,000, and they were scattered 
widely over France. There was not yet a 
well organized distributing force at work, 
and the delivery of the paper was greatly 
handicapped. However, a copy managed 
to reach nearly every soldier overseas at that 
time, and was received joyfully by the men 
who were glad to see something that reminded 
them so forcefully of home. 

The Final Issue 

The final issue of The Stars and Stripes 
appeared on June 13, 1919. It had been in 
existence for more than sixteen months and 
during that time had amassed a profit of more 
than $700,000 and had reached a total circula- 
tion of more than 5'-26,000 copies, 70,000 of 
which were paid subscriptions sent by soldiers 
to persons in the United States, the remainder 
being taken by soldiers of the A. E. F. 

The serious shortage of white newsprint 
paper all over the world was the direct cause 

First papers oEf the press starting for the men in hospitals. 

American Red Cross. 

These were distributed by the 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

for the discontinuance of The Stars and 
Stripes. ^Vhite paper stock was at all times 
during the life of the paper a hard thing to get, 
but with the close of the war, and the resump- 
tion of business on a larger scale in all the 
countries engaged it became well nigh impos- 
sible to get it at all. The size of the A. E. F. 
had considerably dwindled by this time, and 
the headquarters of the American Forces in 
Germany had been established. These men, 
who were to be the last to leave Europe were 
already being supplied with news by their own 
newspaper. The Amaroc News, which had 
shortly before begun publication, and the need 
which had been the cause for the inception of 
The Stars and Stripes was practically at an 

One of the members of The Stars and 
Stripes editorial staff prepared a lengthy 
farewell article, bidding good-bye to the men 
whom the paper had served and reviewing at 
some length its work and achievements. His 
article was entitled "Bugler Walsh Sounds 
Taps With This Issue." The story was a 
fitting secjuel to the editorial entitled "To The 
Colors," which had appeared in the first issue 
more than a year before. Their pledges in 
that editorial fulfilled, the staff of The Stars 
and Stripes emerged from the obscurity 
which they had assumed and obtruded their 
own views and the personalities of some of 
their members on the readers of the paper. 
The Editorial Staff solemnly pledged that the 

paper, when folded away should remain a 
memory of the past, their contribution to the 
memory of the men who had read it and died 
for liberty, as well as to those who had fought 
well and returned home to enjoy the fruits of 
their victory. 

However, there was one man who was on 
the original staff of The Stars and Stripes 
who did not bind himself to this pledge, and 
coming home before the last issue was pub- 
lished overseas he began publishing an Amer- 
ican edition of The Stars and Stripes in 
Washington, D. C. This newspaper, still 
called The Stars and Stripes is still in 

Pictorial Supplement 

The first, and of necessity the last pictorial 
supplement published with The Stars and 
Stripes appeared with the final issue. A 
especial Baldridge cartoon entitled "The 
Dawn," which showed American soldiers, their 
task completed, with arms outstretched to- 
ward the glorious West whence they had 
come. The photographs depicted the changes 
which came about from the time the first 
American outfit arrived in France to the 
departure of a transport from Brest with the 
first contingent of Yanks homeward bound. 

The arrangement of the cuts was the work 
of Hal Burrows, an artist, whose Joan of Arc, 
in one of the later issues had caused such 
favorable comment. 


tiy Walh 

The Hisiory of the Stars and Stripes 


The Stars and Stripes First "Newsy" 

No history of The Stars and Stripes would 
be complete unless it mentioned specifically 
Daniel Sowers, familiarly known to the mem- 
bers of the staff as "Li'l Dan'l", the 350- 
, pound infant who first saw the light of day 
among the hills of West Virginia, and whose 
love for his native haunts is so great that he 
may be found there to this day. When the 
war broke out Dan'l was safely ensconced in 
a secretarial position with the government of 
his native state but heeding the call of duty, 
in a moment of reckless disregard for his life 
or safety volunteered his services as a field 

The opening of our story finds him selling 
copies of the first issue of The Stars and 
Stripes to every mother's son he met at G. H. 
Q., Chaumont, ranking from generals to acting 
buck privates. If it had not been for The 
Stars and Stripes it is possible that the world 
would never have known nor "little recked" 
of the ability of "Li'l Dan'l" to dispel the 
gloom with his sunny smile or to separate 
soldiers from their "frankies" for a newspaper. 
The staff of The Stars and Stripes felt such 
an everlasting gratitude to Dan for bringing 
their publication so well into popular notice 
that every time he visited Paris he was always 
attached to the staff for rations and for safe 
guidance and conduct among the perils of the 
city, for be it known that although he weighed 
little less than John Bunny at his best his 
blooming innocence made him a shining mark 
for every wild woman in "gay Paree." 

Although Dan Sowers was never officially 
attached to the staff of The Stars and 
Stripes he had an important assignment in 
connection with it, for he handled all corre- 
spondence in reference to The Stars and 
Stripes at G. H. Q., where he had a desk in 
the same building with Pershing and other 
shining lights of the A. E. F. 

It might be said of Dan Sowers that no one 
in the A. E. F. owned a bigger body or a bigger 
heart than the one which beat beneath his 
O. D. jacket. He was everybody's friend, 
and after they had known him for five minutes 
every man he met was Dan's friend for life. 
Dan is back in civil life now and is still a 
familiar figure at the office of The Stars and 
Stripes when he periodically emerges from 
the seclusion of the hills to greet his old A. E. 
F. friends, and to swap reminiscences of the 
days when he and Jimmy Britt represented 
more avoirdupois than any six major generals 
in the army. 


Bliss was devoted to "Rags," a French 
setter dog, whom he made his inseparable 
companion in France. Wherever Bliss went, 
" Rags " followed. His devotion for "Rags" 
was shared by the staff of The Stars and 
Stripes. "Rags " was brought back with the 
company as mascot of the paper. What Tip 
thought of "Rags" was shown by the follow- 
ing poem which appeared in one of the issues. 


They say I can't go back with him, 
They say we dogs are banned. 

They told him that. They didn't think 
That I could understand. 

I've had him pretty near a year, 

Since I was just a pup. 
I used to be a sort of bum. 

And then — he picked me up. 

We've slept together in the rain. 

And snow, too, quite a lot. 
Cold nights we kept each other warm. 

Some days we ate — some not. 

Once he went to the hospital. 

I followed. They said, "No." 
He swore a lot and told the doc 

Unless I stayed, he'd go. 

He's going to go home pretty soon 
And leave me here — oh well — 

I wonder if dogs have a heav'n.^ 
I know we've got a hell. 

— Rags. 

40 The History of the Stars and Stripes 


Second Section, General Staff* 

Jvme 10, 1919. 


The issue of Juoe .13th has been selected, hj the Consoandor-in-Chief 
%e the final issue of THE STARS AED STRIPES, 

On that date, or aa soon thereafter as possible, your serrioes 
with the A. B. F. and Its official newspaper wl21 terminate* It is my 
pleasure and duty, therefore, to give you this farewell ©:!5)re8slon of grati- 
tude and i^ppreciation which I know to be vary intensely felt by the whole 
A. E. F. and to be inspired by the splendid publication your labors gave 

Individual thoi&s oannot be given eaoh of you any more than they 
oan be given each of the 2,000,000 in the A. E. P» but this letter to you 
all collectively will, I hope, Skssure you of the regard in which you are 

Certainly, bo other newspspep waa over bom of a greater need 
than was THE STARS AJTO STRIPES. Eqvalljr oertain is it that no other news- 
paper ever served its naeda with aisre loyalty and 'abJ.iityo To bring oheer, 
smiles 9 nflfwa from home, news from plaoes of l:atere3t in the land they were 
fighting la, to 2,000,000 Esen thousands of miles from the United States 
and, in addition, to enooura^e thase men to fight with smiles and confidence 
was a fraction of the needs your labors supplied. 

How well you aaoomplished this task is attested in ths records 
of General Headquarters. It will be recorded for posterity in the war 
histories to be writtexi* It is already written, but unofficially^ in hundreds 
of letters received by this offioe — letters which, in their praise of your 
wortc, night be stnnrariSQd as proclaiming TIE STARS AITD STRIPES as the literary 
landmark of the war, fotmded by and for the American soldier. It is n^^ wish 
to add this personal tribute to those on file and to make of official record 
an appreciation of the distinguished tQrvic3s you have renderedo 

Official copy to:- /^ <l^eyy\^ ^.X. 

Sgt. Harry L. Katz. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 



The History of the Stars and Stripes 

Men Who Helped Make "The Stars and Stripes" 

The men of the A. E. F. who, at one time or another, have worked on The Stabs and Stripes 
and contributed to its success are listed below in alphabetical order, with their home addresses. 

These men were obtained for service on the paper after a canvass of the whole A. E. F., a process 
in which the qualification cards filled out at replacement depots and reclassification camps played an 
important part. Some were recommended by their C.O.'s for service with us and some applied. 

These lists are printed to give due credit in future years to the men who helped make possible 
one of the most interesting experiments in American journalism. 

ACKERMAN, Henry H., Pvt. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
ADAMS, Franklin P., Capt. 

New York, N. Y. 
ADAMS, Kenneth C, Sgt. Ma]. 

Sacramento, Calif. 
AGEN, Meyer, Pvt. 1st CI. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
AYERS, Milton J., 1st Lt., Inf. 

New York. 
BABBITT, Donald G., 1st Lt., Inf. 

Bellows Falls, Vt. 
BAILEY, Seth T., Sgt. 

Portland, Ore. 
BALABAN. Sydney, Pvt. 

Chicago, 111. 
BALDRIDGE, C. LeRoy, Pvt. 

San Diego, Calif. 
BARRY, Arthur W., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Whittier, Calif. 
BARTON, Frank W.. Sgt. 

Portland, Ore. 
BASSETT, Horace Y., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Coatesville, Pa. 
BACHELOR, Louis R., Cpl. 

Goshen, Ind. 
BAUKHAGE, Hilmar R., 2d Lt., F.A. 

New Y'ork City. 
BEATTY, Edgar, Pvt. 1st CI. 

Chicago, 111. 
BECKMAN, Edward L., Cpl. 

Ottawa. Ohio. 
BEDDOR, Frank, Pvt. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
BEER, Harold C, Sgt. 

Clinton, Mass. 
BERGH, Sigurd U., Pvt. 1st CI 

St. Paul, Minn. 
BERNARD, August L., Sgt. 

Erie, Pa. 
BESER, Nicholas, R.S.M. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
BLACK, John, Cpl. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
BLISS, D. L., Sgt 

Berkeley, Calif. 
BLISS, Tyler H., Sgt. 

Hartford, Conn. 
BOETJER, William G., Pvt. 

Hannibal, Mo. 
BONDY, Edward W., Pvt. 

Baltimore, Md. 
BONNETT, Fred J., Cpl. 

Hoboken, N. J. 
BORCHERS, Harold, Pvt 

San Francisco, Cahi. 
BORN, Nestor J., Sgt. 

Evansville, Ind. 
BOTTORFF, Donald, Cpl. 

Charlestown, Ind. 
BRADY, Richard W., Cpl. 

New York City. 

BRENTON, Donald R., 2d Lt., Inf. 

Chicago, 111. 
BRISTOL, Claude M., Sgt. 

Portland, Ore. 
BRY'SON, George T., 2d Lt., A.S. 

Richmond, Va. 
BUCHER, John M , A.F.C. 

Washington, D. C. 
BRITT, George W. B., A.F.C. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
BURCHILL, Arthur H , Cpl. 

Chicago, III. 
BURKE, Walter J., Pvt. 

New York Citv. 
BURROWS, Harold L., Sgt. 

Salt Lake Citv, Utah. 
BURTON, Edgar R., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Americus Ga. . . 
BURNETT, Verne E., Sgt. 

Homer, Mich. 
BUSSIUS, Charles J., Sgt. 

Washington, D. C. 
BYRON, Daniel E., Cpl. 

Providence, R. I. 
CALLIS, Richard M., Cpl. 

Dundas, Ya. 
CANNON, Percy F., Pvt. 

Chicago, 111. 
CARROLL, Joseph W., Pvt. 

San Francisco, Calif. 
CARROLL, Leonard M., Sgt. 

Kansas City, Mo. 
CARROLL, Stuart H., Q.M. Sgt.,lS. G. 

Kansas City, Mo. 
CASHEN, John L., Sgt. 

Cohoes, N. Y. 
CHARMAN, Elbert B., Cpl. 

Oregon City, Ore. 
CLAIBORNE, Richard S., Sgt. 

Rusk, Tex. 
CLARY, Thomas M., R.S. Maj. 

New Y'ork City. 
GLOWER, Clarence E., Pvt. 

New York City. 
COLEMAN, Nelson E., Cpl. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CONKLIN, Clarence C, Cpl. 

New York City. 
CONLEE, C. S , Pvt. 

Bryan. Tex. 
CONNOLLY, Jack S., Cpl. 

Newton Lower Falls, Mass. 
CORCORAN, Paul B., Sgt. 

New York Citv. 

Sgt. 1st CI. 
CUE, Merl K., Pvt. 
Frankfort, Ind. 
GUSHING, Charles R., 1st Lt. 

New York Citv. 
Denver, Colo. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


GUMMING, J. P., 2d Lt. 

Florence, Ala. 
DE GRANGE, Joseph, 2d Lt., F. A. 

New Orleans, La. 
DALY, Joseph G., Sgt. 1st CI., Q.M.C. 

New York City 
DALEY, Richard D., Cpl. 

Seattle, Wash. 
DARLING, Chester A., Cpl. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
DAVIES, L. L., Pvt. 

Portland, Ore. 
DAVIS, Harold L., 1st Sgt. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
DAYTON, Logan M., Cpl. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
DEE, Joseph P.. Cpl. 

New York City. 
DI CARLO, Charles, Pvt. 

New York City. 
DICKEY, Willis T., B.S.M. 

Mulvane, Kan. 
DILLY, Robert S., Pvt. 

Flandrin, Paris. 
DOLAN, Louis F., Pvt. 

Dorchester. Mass. 
DOSTAL, Eben J., Cpl. 

Chicago, 111. 
DOWD, Frank A., Cpl. 

Brooklvn, N. Y. 
DOYLE, Lloyd"^L., Cpl. 

Utica. N.Y. 
DUNN, Walter F., Cpl. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
EARLY, Stephen T., Capt., Inf. 

Washington, D. C. 
EASINGWOOD, A. H., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Clinton, N. Y. 
EMMONS, Riley H., Cpl. 

Hill Citv, Kan. 
EPSTEIN, Emmanuel. Pvt. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
FEENEY, Joseph E., Cpl. 

Portland, Me. 

Marshfield, Wis. 
FENDRICK, R. S., 2d, Lt. A.S. 

Mercersburg, Pa. 
FITCH, Roy, Cpl. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
FLOOD. Patrick J., Pvt., 1st. CI. 

Brooklvn, N. Y. 
FORBES, John P., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Huntingdon, Pa. 
FORSHAY, Stanley W., Pvt. 

Paterson, N. J. 
FRANTZ, John C, Sgt. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Whittier. Cal. 
FRUGONE, Louis F., Pvt. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
FULTON, Robert E., Cpl. 

Dallas, Tex. 
GALLAGHER, Lee F., Pvt. 

Freeland, Pa. 
GARDYNE, Robert E., Cpl. 

Montgomery Center, Vt. 
GAYLORD, Donald D., Cpl. 

Branford, Conn. 
GEESEY, Chester L., Sgt. 

Chicago, 111. 
GELL, W. C, Pvt. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

GERBER, Albinez T., Sgt. 

Portland, Ore. 
GERMAIN, William F., Sgt. 

New York City. 
GESCHARDT, George A., Cpl. 

New York City. 
GIAUQUE, James R., Sgt. 

Yonkers, N. Y. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
GILBERT, Leiand R., Sgt. 

Albany, Ore. 
GLENNY, James A. F., Cpl. 

Chester, Pa. 
GLENN, Edward H., Pvt. 
GLICKMAN, Rudolph, Pvt. CI. 

Newark. N. J. 
GOLDBERG, Saul, Cpl. 

Washington, D. C. 
GOLDEY, Louis, Pvt. 1st CI. 

New York City. 
GOOD, Arthur J., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Boston, Mass. 
GOULD, George D., Sgt. 

New York City. 
GOZA, Henslee D., 1st Sgt. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
GREELEY, Edwin, Sgt. 1st CI. 

Brooklyn. N. Y. 
GREEN, George D., Sgt. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
GREENHAW, DeW. T.. Sgt. 

Phoenix. Ariz. 
GRINSTEAD, Hugh G., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Kerrville, Tex 
HAGGERTY, John P., Sgt. 

New York City. 
HALE, William, Sgt. 

Weiser, Ida. 
HALL. NeLson R., Sgt. 

Glenwood Springs, Colo. 
HALL, Norman D., Cpl. 

Newburgh, N. Y. 
HAMMER, Frank J., Pvt. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
HANSON. Joseph M., Capt.. F. A. 

Yankton. S. D. 
HARMON. Harold H., Sgt. 

CIvde, Kan. 
HANDBERG. C. L.. Pvt. 1st CI. 

Viborg, Denmark. 
HANLEY, William L., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
HARING, D. S., Sgt. 

Jervis, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass. 
HAWLEY, Hudson, Sgt. 

Bristol. Conn. 
HEALY. Thomas R.. Sgt. 

New Haven. Conn. 
HEFFERNAN. Joseph L., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
HELD, Rene F., Cpl. 

Berkeley. Calif. 
HELBIG, Louis W., Sgt. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Rockville Center, N. Y. 
HENNING, L. A., Cpl. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

HERITAGE, W. H., Cpl. 

Seattle, Wash. 
HERLIHY, John K., Cpl. 

Everett, Mas.s. 
HERSON, Edward J., Pvt. 1st CI. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
HERTY, Howard A., B.S.M. 

Clifton, N. J. 
HIPP, Edward S.. Cpl. 

Newark, N. J. 
HICKMAN, George W., Sgt. 

Logan, Utah. 
HIBBS, Russell E.. Pvt. 1st CI. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
HOLT, Felix C, Sgt. 

San Diego, Cal 
HOLWAY, Harvard E., Pvt. 

La Crosse, Wis. 
HOOKES, William L., B S.M. 

Brooklvn, N. Y. 
HORN, Christopher J., Sgt. 

Edgewood, R. I. 
HOUSER, Roy C, Sgt. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
HOUSTON, Sid., Cpl. 

Mexico, Mo. 
HOWARD, Charles M., Cpl. 

Waterloo, N. Y. 
HOWARD. James G., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Alameda, Calif. 
HOWELL, Stanley A.. Pvt. 

Long Island. N. Y. 
HUCK, George C, Sgt. 

Grand Forks, N. D. 
HUFF, Norman D., Sgt. 

Dayton, Ohio. 
HUFSTEDLER, Stanley, Cpl. 

Teague, Tex. 
HUGGINS, Ernest W., Cpl. 

Chicago, 111. 
HUMPHREYS, James P., Sgt. 

West Orange, N. J. 
HUNSEHE, Raymond W., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
HUNT, Dwight G., Sgt. 

New York City. 
ISACKSON, Louis O., Cpl. 

Albert Lea, Minn. 
ISEMINGER Lester D., A. F. C. 

Hageistown, Md. 
JACOBS, Millard F.. Sgt. 

New York City. 
JENTZEN, Herbert, Cpl. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
JENKINS, J. Edwin, A.F.C. 

Washington, D. C. 
JOHNSON, Curtis 0., Sgt. 

Dallas, Tex. 
JONES, Richard S., R S.M. 

Seattle, Wash. 
KANE, Charles J., Sgt. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
KATZ, Harry L., Sgt. 

Roxbury, Mass. 
KAY, Kendall K., Sgt. 

Eureka, Calif. 
KEENAN, William P., Cpl. 

Westfield. Masi^. 
KELLY, Edward M., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Vallejo, Cal. 
KELLY, Frank J., Hosp. Sgt. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

KELLY, J. J.. Cpl. 

New York City. 
KENYON, Alden H., Pvt. 

Box 60, R.F.D., S. Westport, Ma-s. 
KETTERMAN, Harry A., Sgt. 

Standard Oil Co., Portland, Ore. 
KLEFBECK, Victor B., Sgt. 
KLING, Robert E., Cpl. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
KRACKENBERGER, H. W., 2d Lt. I . A. 

W. Terre Haute, Ind. 
KRAEBEL, Charles J., 2d Lt. 

Portland, Ore. 
KRAEMER, George D., Sgt. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
LAMM, Marvin A., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Amarillo, Tex. 
LAMMERS, Henry E., Sgt. 

Sidney, Ohio. 
LAMPMAN, Rex H , Pvt. 

Fargo, N. D. 
LAVINE, Harry, Sgt. 1st CI. 

Boston, Mass. 
LAWRENCE, Joseph J., Sgt. 

Newark, N. J. 
LEE, Robeit E., Pvt. 

Raleigh, N. C. 
LEE, John F., Cpl. 

Detroit, Mich. 
LEEFELDT, Leroy W., Sgt. 

Oak Park, III. 
LEVINE, Max., Pvt. 

New York City. 
LEVY, Max, Sgt. 

Bronx, N. Y. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
LISTER, P. B., Sgt. 

Greeley, Colo. 
LONG, Don M., Sgt. 

Denver, Colo. 
LUCKETT. Jack G., Sgt. 

Albuquerque, N. M. 
McCOLLUM, W. I., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Springfield, S. D. 
McCOSKRIE, Frank U., 1st Lt. 

Spokane, Wash. 
McDERMOTT, Hugh J., Cpl. 

Butte, Mont. 

McDonnell, John a., Cpi. 

Manette, Wash. 
MACK, Willard, Capt. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
MAC NICHOL, K. H., Sgt. 

Boston, Mass. 
MAGILL, W. F., Pvt. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
MAHONEY, William H., Pvt. 1st CI. 

New York City. 
MANSON, Emanuel, Cpl. 

Rochester, N. Y. 
MARSHALL, John L., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Rosedale, Kan. 
MARTEL, Alfred J., Pvt. 

New York City. 
MARTIN, James D., Cpl. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y'. 
MASON, Carman R., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
MATHIS, Frank H., Cpl. 

Tuckerton, N. J. 
MATTICE, Robert E., Sgt. 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 


MATTURNA, Frank J., Pvt. 
MEDCALFE, Willis T., Cpl. 

Detroit, Mich. 
MERRILL, Frank C, Sgt. 1st CI. 

Middletown, Conn. 
MERRIMAN, Lloyd C, Sgt. 

Kenton, Ohio. 
MICHAEL, William K., 1st Lt., Inf. 

Kansas City, Mo. 
MILLER, Craig, Sgt. 

Dyersburg, Tenn. 
MILLER, Daniel L., Sgt. 

Baltimore, Md. 
MILLER, Jacob E., Cpl. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
MILLER, Joseph A., Cpl. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
MILLER, Herman J., Pvt. 

Dubuque, Iowa. 
MILLER, Peter, Cpl. 

Comstock, Minn. 
MILLER, William T. A.F.C. 

Forest Glen, Md. 
MOFFITT, William C. Sgt. 

Columbus, Ga. 
MORAN, Bruce, Cpl. 

N. Y. C. 
MULVANEY, George E., Sgt. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
MURPHY, William C, Sgt. 

Butte, Mont. 
MUMFORD, Philip G., Maj., Q.M.C. 

New York City. 
MYERS, Alex. J., Sgt. 

New York City. 
NICOL, Lawrence, Cpl. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
NICHOLS, A. Hayden, Cpl. 

Macon, Mo. 
NORRIS, Lewis M., Pvt. 

Raymond, Kan. 
OCHS, Adolph S., Jr., 1st Lt. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
O'MALLEY, Neil R., Sgt. 

Chicago, 111. 
OMANSKY, Jacob, Sgt. 

Akron, Ohio. 
PAINTER, James W., Pvt. 

Bristol, Tenn. 
PAINTON, Frederick, Sgt. 

Elmira, N. Y. 
PALMER, Thomas W., Cpl. 

Oakland, Calif. 
PARKER, Harry L., Capt., A.S.C. 

Spartanburg, S. C. 
PARR, John E., Cpl. 

Baltimore, Md. 
PARRY, Duke N., Cpl. 

Kansas City, Mo. 
PATREY, Harry B., Sgt. 

Adrian, Mich. 
PENDLAND, William E., Cpl. 

Auburn. Ind. 
PENNY, George A. Sgt. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
PFANNER, Robert R., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Chicago, 111. 
PHILLIPS, David L., Cpl. 

Yellow Springs, Ohio. 
PIERSON, Jacob, Cpl. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
PLANT, Marlowe H., Clp. 

New York City. 

POST, Levi A. Sgt. 

Stanfordville, N. Y. 

York Pa. 
PRINTZ,' Arthur, Sgt. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
PROSSER, Alfred L., R.S.M. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
RAPPAPORT, Louis, A. S. C. 

New York Citv. 
RADDANT, George T., Sgt. 

Shawano, Wis. 
RHODES, Wallace W., Sgt. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
RICE, Grantland, 1st Lt. 

New York City. 
RICHARD, Jesse L., Sgt. 

Waco, Tex. 

Providence, R. I. 
RILEY, Earl E., Sgt. 

Lincoln, Nebr. 
RILEY, James F., Pvt. 
ROCK, Dallas, Pvt. 

Morrisonville, N. Y. 
RODD, Harrv C, Sgt. 
ROGERS, Wilson, B.S.M. 

Baltimore, Md. 
ROSS, Harold W., Pvt. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
ROWE, Walter S. R.S.M. 

Hami'ton, Ohio. 
RUBLE, Lloyd J., 1st Sgt. 

Amity, Ore. 
RYAN, Patrick J., Pvt. 

New York City. 
RYDER, Clayton M., Sgt. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
RYDER, Melvin, R.S.M. 

Steubenville, Ohio. 
SANGSTER, George M., Sgt. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SCHENCK, Ferdinand, Sgt. 
SCHIEBLE, Raymond M., Cpl. 

Chicago, 111. 
SCHNEIDER, Harry, Cpl. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
SCHWARTZ, Fred, Pvt.. 1st CI. 

New York Citv. 

Lyndhurst, Wis. 

Miami, Fla. 
SCOTT, J. John, Sgt. 

Amsterdam, N. Y. 
SHEPARD, Herbert O , Cpl. 

Wientham Mass. 
SIGMUND, Harold, Sgt. 

New York City. 
SIGWALT, Harold P., Sgt. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
SLAGHT, Arthur J., Cpl. 

Oakland, Cai. 
SLATOR, William J., Sgt. 1st CI. 

New Haven, Conn. 
SMALLEY, F J., Sgt. 

Los Angeles. Cal. 
SMITH, Homer S., A.F.C. 

Pawnee Citj-, Nebr. 
SMITH, J. W. Rixey, Sgt. 

Basic City, Va. 
SMITH, Leslie H., Cpl. 


The History of the Stars and Stripes 

SMITH, Harley A., 2d Lt. 

Hamilton, Ala. 
SNAJDR, Robert I., Sgt. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
SNEVILY, Henry N., 1st Lt. 

New York City. 
SPAHR, Clarence E., Pvt. 

San Diego, Cal. 
SPIERO, Gerald B., Cpl. 

New York City. 
STACK. Robert M., Pvt. 
STANLEY, Harold B., Sgt. 

Rockv Ford, Colo. 
STEPPE,' Joseph H.. Cpl. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
STERRETT, David R., R.S.M. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
STONER, Harry, Pvt. 

Gallen, Ohio. 
STOUT, Thomas W., Cpl. 

Springfield, III. 
STUARDI, Norman E., Sgt. 

Mobile, Ala. 
STURR, Thomas W., Pvt. 

Springfield, Ohio. 
SULLIVAN, David P., Cpl. 

Worcesterd, Mass. 
SUNDIN, Hjalmar, Pvt. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
SWEENEY, Arthur V., Sgt. 

Providence R. I. 
THOMAS, A. R., Sgt. 
TOSTEVIN, Earle H., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Memdin, N. D. 
TRUSLOVV, Harold M., Sgt. 

Brooklvn, N. Y. 
TUCK, William, Cpl. 

Waterbury, Conn. 
TYLER, S. L., 2d Lt. 

Memphis, Tenn. 
VANCE, George K., Cpl. 

Kokomo, Ind. 
VAN HORN, Archie M., 2d Lt. 

Aurira, 111. 
VAN HOOSE, Hershell, Sgt. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
VIEAU, Erne, Sgt. 

San Francisco, Calif. 
VIEHMAN, Carl E., Cpl. 

Garrick, Pa. 
VISKNISKKI, Guy T., Maj., Inf. 

Montclair, N. J. 
VON BLON, Philip, R.S.M. 

Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 
VROOM, Clifford H., R.S.M. 

Exeter, N. H. 
WALDO, Richard H., Capt. 

New York City. 
WALKER, Raymond E., Pvt. 

Fort Worth, Tex.. 
WALLACE, H. H., Cpl. 

Brockport, N. Y. 
WALLGREN, Abian A., Pvt. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALSH, David J., Cpl. 

Arlington, Mass. 
WALSH, Peter C, Sgt. 

Newark, N. J. 

WALTMAN, William C, 2imI Lt 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALTY, Francis J., R.S.M. 

Dorranceton, Pa. 
WARREN, Charles J., Cpl. 

Washington, D. C. 
WARLICK, Bernie C, Cpl. 

Dallas, Tex. 
WARNER, Clifford T., Sgt. 

Danville, Ind. 
WATSON, Joseph H., Cpl. 

Lamar, S. C. 
WATSON, Mark S., Maj., F.A. 

Chicago, 111. 
W EESNER, Edward J., Sgt. 

Clayton, Ind. 
WEINSTEIN, Jacob, Sgt. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
WESSELLS, G. W., Jr., Sgt. 1st CI. 

Jersey City, N. J. 
WHITE, Egbert G., R.S.M. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
WHITE, Ernest F., Cpl. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
WHITTLE, William E., R.S.M. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
WIENER, Robert, Cpl. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
WILLIAMS, Oscar G., Sgt. 

Temple, Tex. 
WILLOUGHBY, Geoffrey, Pvt. 1st CI. 
WILSON, Albert C, R.S.M. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
W^ILSON, Howard M., 2d Lt., Inf. 

Waco, Tex. 
WILSON, Leo M., Pvt. 

Chicago, 111. 
WINKEL, Raymond, Cpl. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
WINSTON, Leo A., Sgt. 

Menomonee, Wis. 
WTNTERICH, John T., Pvt. 

Providence, R. I. 
WOOLLCOTT, Alexander, Sgt. 

Phalanx, N. J. 
WORLEY, Nathaniel T., Sgt. 

Washington, D. C. 
WRENCH, George P., Cpl. 

Thomasville, Ga. 
YOUNG, King D., Pvt. 1st CI. 

Filer. Idaho. 
ZIMMERMAN, Chas. W., Cpl. 

Boston, Mass. 


McINTOSH, Carl D., Pvt., Suresnes Cemetery. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
BAWDEN, David R., Sgt. 1st. CI. Suresnes 

Detroit, Mich. 
ROLAND, Homer G., Cpl., Suresnes Cemetery. 

Des Moines, Iowa. 
MILTENBERGER, W. F., 1st Lt., Suresnes 

New York City. 

The History of the Stars and Stripes 



Four members of The Stars and Stripes 
staff died in the service. None of them 
were listed as killed in action or died of 
wounds, but their sacrifice was made in line of 
dut}', in some cases as the direct result of 
exposure at the front while carrying on the 
work of the Armv newspaper. 

On October 4,^ 1918, Private Carl D. Mc- 
intosh was laid at rest in the American Mili- 
tary Cemetery at Suresnes, on the beautiful 
hillside that overlooks Paris and the Seine, 
where many heroes of Chateau-Thierry are 
l)uried. He had been with the circulation 
department of the paper for some months, 
working in the Paris office with marked faith- 
fulness and enthusiasm, handling a portion 
of the American mailing lists. 

Sergeant David R. Bawden, after some 
months as a field agent for the paper, came to 
Paris in November, 1918, to become a travel- 
ing auditor. Seized by the influenza epidemic 
he struggled bravely against giving up his 
work, even to enter a hospital. Just when we 
thought he was well, and when he had come 
l)ack to the office with renewed enthusiasm for 
liis new work, a relapse set in, from which he 
died. He was buried at Suresnes on Decem- 
ber 3, 1918. 

Sergeant Homer G. Roland went through 
the trying weeks of the Argonne battle as a 
field agent with one of the divisions in the thick 
of the fighting. Despite his poor health, a 
buoyant spirit kept him on the go for long, 
hard hours, often under fire, and he would not 
relinquish his post until the conclusion of the 
Armistice. Then he came back to Paris and 
entered a hospital, unfortunately too late, as 
tlie progress of the tubercular trouble ac- 
quired during the days and nights of magnifi- 
cent service could not be stayed. On the day 
after Christmas, 1918, the bugle sounded its 
last taps for another Stars and Stripes man 
on the Suresnes hillside. 

First Lieutenant William F. Miltenberger 
came to The Stars and Stripes as treasurer 
in December from duties with the Chief of 
G-''2, G.H.Q. He was in charge of the finances 
of the paper but a few weeks when illness 
forced him first to lessen his work and finally 
to abandon it. In that brief time he had 
given much useful service to the rapidly grow- 
ing work which he took over, and had endeared 
himself to the men in the office by an untiring 
interest in their personal welfare as well as in 
the business affairs they handled. Lieutenant 
Miltenberger was buried at Suresnes January 
13, 1919. 

By Walty 


.31^6 85' 




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